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How Do You Say "Good Luck" in Spanish?

According to Holden Caulfield in J.D Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye: "I'd never yell, 'Good luck!' at anybody. It sounds terrible, when you think about it." Well... whether or not you agree with this somewhat cynical viewpoint, most of us can concur that everyone could use a little extra luck, and every culture employs different expressions to wish others well. In fact, Spanish-speakers are very likely to use many of these daily! So... how do you say "good luck" in Spanish? Today's lesson will teach you a plethora of ways.

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Buena suerte

The most literal translation for "good luck" in Spanish is buena suerte. Let's hear it in action:

 

¡Buena suerte!

Good luck!

Caption 91, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 2: Sam va de compras - Part 6

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There are many variations of (buena) suerte, including mucha suerte (lots of luck), which are often used with the subjunctive form of the verb tener (to have) in expressions like Que tengas mucha suerte (I hope you have a lot of luck) or the verb desear (to wish) as in Te deseo mucha/buena suerte (I wish you a lot of/good luck). 

 

Suerte

Another way to say "good luck" in Spanish is to say simply "Suerte," which literally means just "Luck." 

 

Suerte, Fernando. 

Good luck, Fernando.

Caption 23, Confidencial: Asesino al Volante Capítulo 3 - Part 8

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In Latin America, you might notice that both people you know well and people you just met, such as store clerks and taxi drivers, will often say this to you when you depart. 
 

La mejor de las suertes

Another common expression to wish someone "the best of luck" in Spanish is La mejor de las suertes, which could be said alone or with the verb desear :

 

te deseamos la mejor de las suertes, ¿oís? 

we wish you the best of luck, you hear?

Caption 47, La Sucursal del Cielo Capítulo 1 - Part 5

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Éxito(s)

Saying ¡É​xito! (Success!) to someone in the singular or plural is another way of wishing someone "good luck" in Spanish, which could also be used with the verb desear:

 

Les deseamos muchos éxitos, ehm... 

We wish you a lot of success, um...

Caption 68, Doctor Krápula Entrevista

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Así que les deseo lo mejor, éxito en todo

So I wish you the best, [I wish you] success with everything

Caption 66, Outward Bound Danny

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Note that this second example contains yet another way of wishing someone well in Spanish: desear(le a alguien) lo mejor, or "wishing (someone) the best." Another alternative to this manner of wishing someone good luck and best wishes in Spanish is to say simply Mis mejores deseos (My best wishes). 

 

Que te vaya bien

Que te vaya bien is yet another expression that friends and strangers alike often utter to wish you good luck and best wishes in Spanish. It's literal meaning is "(I hope) everything goes well for you," but it might sometimes be translated with the similarly well-wishing English phrase "Take care":

 

¡Qué te vaya bien! -¡Qué te vaya bien! ¡Qué tengas suerte! -¡Chao! -¡Chao! ¡Suerte! ¡Chao! 

Take care! -Take care! Good luck! -Bye! -Bye! Good luck! Bye!

Captions 67-69, Salvando el planeta Palabra Llegada - Part 5

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Cruzar los dedos 

Just like English-speakers, Spanish speakers sometimes use the phrase cruzar los dedos (to cross one's fingers) to describe a superstitious action thought to promote good luck.

 

Bueno pues, crucemos los dedos para que todo salga bien

Well then, let's cross our fingers for everything to go well

Caption 17, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 4 - Part 12

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(Mucha) mierda

Yep, you read that right! Although it literally means "crap" or "shit," telling someone ¡Mierda! or ¡Mucha mierda! (A lot of crap) is one to say "good luck" in Spanish slang and can be thought of as an equivalent expression to the English "Break a leg!" Interestingly, in the theater world, Spanish speakers often use the French version, merde.

 

Now that you know how to say "Good luck" in Spanish, we'd like to leave you with the following:

 

OK, buena suerte al aprender español.

Okay, good luck learning Spanish.

Caption 29, Cabarete Escuela de trapecio

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And don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments!

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How Do You Say "No" in Spanish?

How do you say "no" in Spanish? Today's lesson will teach you a multitude of ways!

 

Saying "No" in Spanish

If you are wondering how to say "no" in Spanish, like in English, there are many different ways. For starters, we could just say "no" like we do in English (with a slightly different pronunciation, of course)!

 

Elena, por favor, ¿te sentís bien? No.

Elena, please, do you feel alright? No.

Captions 1-2, Yago 13 La verdad - Part 5

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How Do You Say "No, Thank You" in Spanish?

For a more polite choice, use the Spanish equivalent of "No, thank you":

 

¿Quieres? No, gracias. Tengo unas galletas aquí.

Do you want [some]? No, thank you. I have some cookies here.

Captions 12-13, Conversaciones en el parque Cap. 2: Cafe y bocadillos

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How Do You Say "No Way" in Spanish?

To answer with a more emphatic "no," try one of the many expressions that mean "No way" in Spanish. The first one can be translated quite literally:

 

No, de ninguna manera. 

No, no way.

Caption 45, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 6

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Now, let's look at some additional options. Qué va is another way to say "no way" in Spanish:
 

¿No muerde, no, Suso? -No, qué va

He doesn't bite, right, Suso? -Right, no way.

Caption 22, Animales en familia Un día en Bioparc: Coatís

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Yet another equivalent of "no way" in Spanish is ni hablar, which literally means that the person answering "doesn't even" want "to talk" about something:
 

Eh... Entonces de hablar, ni hablar

Um... Then about talking, no way.

Caption 85, Muñeca Brava 47 Esperanzas - Part 10

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And finally, ni de broma literally means "Not even as a joke," as in the following examples:
 

¿Quieres salir conmigo? -¡Ni de broma!

Do you want to go out with me? -No way!

 

¡No te escapas ni de broma! -¡El arma secreta del grupo! -¡Hombre! 

There's no way you'll get out of this! -The secret weapon of the band! -Man!

Caption 56, Orishas Entrevista Canal Plus

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How Do You Say "Of Course Not" in Spanish?

To remember how to say "Of course not" in Spanish, let's first recall two ways to say "Of course," claro and por supuesto, then look at their negative versions:

 

¡Por supuesto que no! ¡No! ¿Mm? 

Of course not! No! Hmm?

Caption 44, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 4: Sam busca un trabajo - Part 3

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No, no, no, claro que no. Además... 

No, no, no, of course not. Besides...

Caption 37, NPS No puede ser 1 - El concurso - Part 11

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How Do You Say "Don't Even Think About It" in Spanish?

While the first, most literal way to say "Don't even think about it" in Spanish is Ni lo pienses, there are several others, such as Ni se te ocurra, which literally means "Don't even let it occur to you":

 

Si yo dejé mi departamento... -Ni se te ocurra

If I left my apartment... -Don't even think about it.

Caption 14, Muñeca Brava 45 El secreto - Part 6

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Let's see one more:

 

¡Ni lo sueñes!

Don't even think about it [literally "Don't even dream about it"]!

Caption 19, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 7: La gemela - Part 5

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An alternative variation would be: ¡Ni en tus sueños! In English, of course, we would merely say "In your dreams" (as opposed to the literal translation "Not in your dreams").   

 

How Do You Say "I Don't Feel Like It" in Spanish?

In Spanish, a common way to say you're just not in the mood (to do something) is no tener ganas de + infinitive, as follows

 

Dale. -Sí. -Sí. -Te toca. Gracias, Merycita, pero no tengo ganas de jugar.

Go ahead. -Yes. -Yes. -It's your turn. Thank you, Merycita, but I don't feel like playing.

Captions 57-58, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 3

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To say simply "I don't feel like it," you might choose No tengo ganas or the alternative expression No me da la gana.

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More Dramatic Ways to Say "No" in Spanish

Let's look at a few more common Spanish expressions that make abundantly clear that one's answer is negative: 

 

No, no, no, para nada, no, ¿cómo se te ocurre?

No, no, no, not at all, no, how can you think that?

Caption 12, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 4 - Part 8

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De eso nada. ¡Es mía, sólo mía!

None of that. It's mine, just mine!

Caption 21, Los casos de Yabla Problemas de convivencia - Part 1

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No, en absoluto.

No, absolutely not.

Caption 76, Muñeca Brava 7 El poema - Part 8

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And, let's conclude with the most dramatic option of all:

 

¡¿Estás loco o qué?! 

Are you crazy or what?!

Caption 34, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 4: Sam busca un trabajo - Part 1

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We hope you've enjoyed this lesson on how to say "no" in Spanish. Can you think of any additional Spanish ways to say "no"? Don't forget to let us know!

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15 Spanish Words that Start with W

There are many words in English that start with the letter W. But, what about Spanish? How many Spanish words that start with W do you know? If you can't think of any, we would like to invite you to read this lesson, where we will unveil some of the most commonly used words that start with W in Spanish.

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A Couple of Things about the Letter W in Spanish

To begin with, the letter W is one of the letters of the Spanish alphabet. However, since this letter wasn't part of the Latin language, its adoption into the Spanish language came from terms and words that are original to other languages (extranjerismos).

 

In terms of the name and pronunciation of this consonant, as there are many ways of referring to the letter W in Spanish, you can use any the following four options:

 

1. uve doble

2. ve doble

3. doble ve

4. doble u

 

Let's hear the pronunciation of the recommended option uve doble:

 

te, u, uve, uve doble,

t, u, v, w,

Caption 23, Fundamentos del Español 1 - El Alfabeto

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And let's see how to pronounce the alternative option doble ve:

 

ve, doble ve, equis, ye, zeta.

v, w, x, y, z.

Caption 11, Graciela Alfabeto y formación de sílabas

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Now that we know the various names for this letter and the type of words that contain it, let's take a look at some of the most common words that start with the letter W in Spanish.

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Technology-Related Spanish Words That Start with W

There are several technology-related words in Spanish that start with W. Please keep in mind that most of them are terms that have been borrowed from the English language with the same spelling. Let's look at a few:

 

1. walkie-talkie (walkie-talkie)

 

2. walkman (walkman)

 

3. watt (watt)

Even though the Spanish term vatio is the recommended one for its English equivalent, the word watt is also accepted. 

 

4. web (web)

The word "web" is used in Spanish in the same way as in English. However, this term can also be employed when talking about a single website or web page:

 

Más información en esta web.

More information on this website.

Caption 9, Tecnópolis Viaje por la red

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5. webinario (webinar)

Keep in mind that you can also use the term seminario web when talking about a webinar in Spanish.

 

6. wifi (Wi-Fi)

 

Tenemos también wifi y hay ordenadores disponibles.

We also have Wi-Fi and there are computers available.

Caption 20, El Aula Azul Las actividades de la escuela - Part 1

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Spanish Words That Start with W That Come from English 

As we saw in the previous section, there are many Spanish W words that come from the English language. Let's see some more:

 

7. windsurf (wind surf)

 

8. whisky (whisky)

 

9. washingtoniano/na (Washingtonian)

 

10. waterpolo (water polo)

You might also see the term waterpolista to describe a water polo player. 

 

Additional Words That Start with W in Spanish

English is not the only language that has given Spanish some of its W words. There are numerous words in Spanish that start with W that come from other languages. Let's take a look.

 

11. wagneriano/na (Wagnerian)- from German

 

12. wahabismo (Wahhabism)- from Arabic

 

13. wantán (wonton)- from Chinese

 

14. wasabi (wasabi)- from Japanese

 

de salsa de soja o wasabi

with soy sauce or wasabi,

Caption 32, El Aula Azul Adivinanzas de comidas - Part 2

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15. westfaliano/na (Westphalian)- from German

 

 

As you can see, there are some easy Spanish words that start with W as well as some more challenging ones. Can you think of any additional words that start with W in Spanish? Be sure to let us know, and don't forget to leave us your questions and comments

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El Zodiaco 101

What is el Zodiaco (the zodiac)? In la astronomía (astronomy) and la astrología (astrology), this word (or its alternative spelling, Zodíaco) refers to a band in el cielo (the sky) that los cuerpos celestes (celestial bodies) like el Sol (the Sun), la Luna (the Moon), and los planetas (the planets) appear to move through when viewed from la Tierra (the Earth). This band includes twelve constelaciones (constellations) named for los signos del Zodiaco (the zodiac signs), which said celestial bodies are said to be "in" when moving into the portion of this band that includes them. One's zodiac sign is thus determined by the constellation the sun was in on his or her fecha de nacimiento (birthdate in Spanish).

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Signos y fechas (Signs and Dates)

Armed with this understanding, let's take a look at the Spanish names for the twelve signs of the zodiac, as well as the date ranges for each (you might want to review this lesson on the months in Spanish):

 

Aries21 de marzo al 19 de abril

                (Aries: March 21st to April 19th)

 

Tauro: 20 de abril al 20 de mayo

                (Taurus: April 20th to May 20th)

 

Géminis:  21 de mayo al 20 de junio

                (Gemini: May 21st to June 20th)

 

Cáncer:  21 de junio al 22 de julio

                (Cancer: June 21st to July 22nd)

 

Leo: 23 de julio al 22 de agosto 

                (Leo: July 23rd to August 22nd)

 

Virgo: 23 de agosto al 22 de septiembre

                (Virgo: August 23rd to September 22nd)

 

Libra: 23 de septiembre al 22 de octubre 

                (Libra: September 23rd to October 22nd)

 

Escorpio/Escorpión23 de octubre al 21 de noviembre 

                (Scorpio: October 23rd to November 21st)

 

Sagitario: 22 de noviembre al 21 de diciembre 

                (Sagittarius: November 21st to December 19th)

 

Capricornio: 22 de diciembre al 19 de enero 

                (Capricorn: December 22nd to January 19th)

 

Acuario: 20 de enero al 18 de febrero 

                (Aquarius: January 20th to February 18th)

 

Piscis19 de febrero al 20 de marzo 

                (Pisces: February 19th to March 20th)

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Types of Signs

The twelve zodiac signs are furthermore grouped into four elementos (elements): aire (air), agua (water), fuego (fire), and tierra (earth). Let's take a look at which signs fall into each of these categories:

 

Los signos de fuego (The Fire Signs): Aries, Leo, Sagitario

 

Los signos de aire (The Air Signs): Géminis, Libra, Acuario

 

Los signos de agua (The Water Signs):  Cáncer, Escorpio, Piscis

 

Los signos de tierra (The Earth Signs): Tauro, Virgo, Capricornio

 

What's Your Sign?

So, how do you ask someone what his or her sign is in Spanish? The most common way is "¿Qué signo eres/es?" or "What sign are you?" with tú (informal "you") or usted (formal "you"). The answer might be Yo soy Tauro (I'm a Taurus), etc. However, you might notice that in some countries like Argentina, they tend to use the preposition de (of/from) to ask and answer this question, as in the following examples:

 

¿Y de qué signo sos? Yo, de Sagitario

And what is your sign? Me, Sagittarius.

Captions 82-83, Muñeca Brava 3 Nueva Casa - Part 8

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Sí, la madre superiora es de Aries ¡y la verdad que tiene un humor! Es re agreta. 

Yes, the Mother Superior is Aries and the truth is that she has a temper! She is so grumpy.

Captions 80-81, Muñeca Brava 36 La pesquisa - Part 10

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Horoscopes and Astrological Charts

As we can see from the second quote above, specific astrological signs and elements tend to be associated with certain rasgos de personalidad (character traits). Of course, as not all members of a particular sign can be exactly alike, a tool for predecir (predicting) a person's personality in a more detailed fashion is una carta astral (astrological chart):

 

Nos valemos de la carta astral, que es la fotografía que se toma del cielo en el momento en que alguien nace, para ver la ubicación que tenían los planetas en ese momento 

We use the astrological chart, which is the photograph that is taken of the sky at the moment in which someone is born, to see the location that the planets had at that moment

Captions 5-7, Conversaciones con Luis Astrología

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And, in addition to predicting a person's character, one's future is thought, by proponents of astrology, to be predecible (predictable) based on his or her chart. Said predictions are called los horóscopos (horoscopes), and more generalized versions for the twelve signs can often be seen in newspapers and magazines:  

 
 

Cáncer: Hoy habrá problemas en casa. 

Cancer: Today there will be problems at home.

Caption 1, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 6: El día de la Primitiva - Part 5

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However, just like you can't generalize about personalities, you certainly can't predict con exactitud (accurately) what's in store for each sign: 

 

Los horóscopos son una aproximación a una predicción signo por signo pero no son tan precisos puesto que no hay una carta específica de una persona, sino es en general para los signos

Horoscopes are an approximation of a prediction sign-by-sign, but they are not so accurate since there isn't a chart specific to a person, but rather it is in general for the signs.

Captions 30-32, Conversaciones con Luis Astrología

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All that said, whether you view astrology as a reliable science or a fun hobby, we hope you've learned some useful vocabulary to be able to converse about it in Spanish. And don't forget leave us your suggestions and comments

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Feliz Día de las Madres (Happy Mother's Day)!

What holiday falls on el segundo domingo de mayo (the second Sunday in May) in the United States?

 

Es el Día de las Madres.

It's Mother's Day.

Caption 3, Cleer y Lía El día de la madre

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Although the day on which se festeja (it is celebrated) varies from country to country in the Spanish-speaking world, many of las costumbres  (the customs) overlap. That said, let's talk about some ideas for celebrating your mother while learning some pertinent vocabulary in Spanish! 

 

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Ways to Say "Mother" in Spanish

Just like in English, there are many ways to refer to one's mother in Spanish! Let's take a look: 

 

madre: mother 

 

Tenía que comprar un regalo para mi madre

I had to buy a gift for my mother.

Caption 9, El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos: Por y para

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mamá: mom 

 

Es que eran unas flores muy bonitas, y se las quería regalar a mi mamá.

It's just that they were some very beautiful flowers, and I wanted to give them to my mom.

Captions 12-13, Guillermina y Candelario El Rey de la Selva

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ma: ma/mom/mommy

 

Aquí estoy, ma.

Here I am, Mom.

Caption 45, X6 1 - La banda - Part 11

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mami: mommy

 

Ah. -Tú le diste el teléfono, ¿no, mami?

Oh. -You gave him the phone number, right, Mommy?

Caption 26, Yago 11 Prisión - Part 8

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However, note that in certain contexts, "mami" is a slang term for "baby":

 

Mami, te prometo que esto se va a arreglar

Baby, I promise you that this is going to get fixed

Caption 19, DJ Bitman El Diablo

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Another word that could be used to say either "mommy" or "baby" in Spanish is mamita (whereas mamacita would always refer to an attractive female rather than an actual mom).

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Mother's Day Gifts 

You may have noticed in the examples above the Mother's Day-appropriate vocabulary words regalar (to give, as in a gift), el regalo (the present), and las flores (the flowers). What might be another typical item to give to your mother on Mother's Day?

 

Estoy leyendo mi tarjeta de felicitación.

I am reading my greeting card.

Caption 9, Marta Vocabulario de Cumpleaños

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While the speaker in this caption is referring to a birthday card, la tarjeta de felicitación could refer to any type of "greeting card" (if you'd like to brush up on your birthday vocabulary, check out this lesson on Todo sobre los cumpleaños (All About Birthdays) in Spanish). Other typical Mother's Day gifts, like una caja de chocolates (a box of chocolates) might overlap with your Spanish vocabulary for Valentine's Day

 

Additional Gift Ideas 

What might be another way to  sorprender (surprise) your mom (the noun for "a surprise" in Spanish is una sorpresa)?

 

Mi mamá es muy buena conmigo siempre y por eso decidí sorprenderla con una torta de chocolate

My mom is always very good to me, and that's why I decided to surprise her with a chocolate cake

Captions 5-6, Cleer y Lía El día de la madre

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As Cleer mentions, cocinar (cooking) or hornear (baking) something for her could be nice, as would servirle un desayuno en la cama (serving her breakfast in bed). And, if you want to include a scrumptious beverage in the equation, we recommend this tutorial on how to make mimosas

 

Alternatively, you could invite your mom to salir a... (go out to...) desauynar (breakfast/brunch), almorzar (lunch/brunch), or the anglicism, brunchear (brunch).

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How About a Spa Day?

A day at the spa or un tratamiento de belleza (beauty treatment) might be just what mom needs to relajarse (relax) and sentirse valorada (feel appreciated). Let's take a look at the names for some services she might enjoy: 

 

Tenemos, eh... la facial de una hora que es la clásica

We have, um... the one-hour facial, which is the classic one,

Caption 10, Cleer y Lida Conversación telefónica - Part 2

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un largo y tierno masaje,

a long and tender massage,

Caption 23, Aprendiendo con Silvia Pequeños grandes placeres - Part 2

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También ofrecemos manicure y pedicure.

We also offer manicures and pedicures.

Caption 13, Cleer y Lida Conversación telefónica - Part 2

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Manicures and pedicures might also be referred to as la manicura/la pedicura in Spanish. 

 

Spending Time with Mom

In addition to the aforementioned suggestions, pasar tiempo (spending time) with your mom in any capacity is bound to go over well. You could opt for the previously suggested meal together, or perhaps some outing to hacer senderismo (go hiking), ir al cine (go to the movies), or in the best of cases, ir de vacaciones (go on vacation). And, if you don't live near your mother, llamarla (calling her) would certainly make her day. 

 

Sweet Things to Say to Mom

We'll conclude this lesson with a few nice things you might say to your mom on el Día de la Madre (another way to say "Mother's Day" in Spanish), or any day! 

 

Te quiero/Te amo: I love you (Note that in some countries, the verb amar (to love) refers to only romantic love, while in others, it is appropriate for family members).

 

Eres la mejor mamá del mundo: You're the best mom in the world. 

 

Gracias por todo lo que has hecho por mí: Thank you for everything you've done for me. 

 

Estoy muy agradecido/a: I'm very grateful. 

 

Another way to direct some kind words to your mother might be reciting a poem, such as this suitable one entitled A mamá (To Mom).

 

For more Mother's Day vocabulary (and a great chocolate cake recipe!), watch Cleer y Lía- El día de la madre, and don't forget to recognize your mom, grandma, or any other great mom you know on el Día de las Madres... and to leave us your suggestions and comments!

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"To Meet," "Meeting(s)," and More in Spanish

In English, we use the verb "to meet" and the nouns "meet" and "meeting" in a plethora of nuanced ways. Let's explore the various manners in which these different types of meetings are expressed in Spanish. 

 

"To Meet" Someone (For the First Time) 

The English verb "to meet" can mean "to make acquaintance" with someone. Although the Spanish verb for "to meet" in this sense is conocer, remember that in the present and other tenses, this verb can also mean "to know" or "be familiar with":

 

Por ejemplo: Conozco a María.

For example: I know María.

Caption 11, Lecciones con Carolina Saber y conocer

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In the preterite tense, however, the meaning of the verb conocer typically changes to "meet" in the sense of having "met" someone for the first time: 

 

Conocí a mi marido, Carlos, hace unos dieciocho años.

I met my husband, Carlos, about eighteen years ago.

Caption 9, Burgos María de los Ángeles

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To find out more similarly-evolving verbs, check out this lesson on verbs that change meaning in the preterite tense

 

In other tenses, conocer can mean "to know," "to meet," or even to "have been" somewhere, and context will typically tell you which meaning is meant. But, since "meeting" is the topic at hand, let's take a look at a couple more examples where the verb conocer means just that:

 

Le gusta mucho conocer personas nuevas.

She likes very much to meet new people.

Caption 21, El Aula Azul Mis Primos

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Encantadísima de conocerte.

Very nice to meet you.

Caption 39, Yago 4 El secreto - Part 11

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For more things to say upon meeting someone for the first time, check out this lesson on introducing yourself in Spanish.

 

"To Meet" as in "Get Together" 

There are several verbs that mean "to meet" as in "get together" with someone in terms of some outing, for coffee, or even a more formal "meeting" in Spanish. Let's take a look at some of them in action:

 

Reunirse (con)

 

y ahí nos reunimos varias personas

and several of us get together there

Caption 41, Cleer Entrevista con Jacky

 Play Caption

 

Espero que esta situación pase rápido para poder reunirme con mis amigos, familiares

I hope this situation gets over soon so I can meet with my friends, relatives,

Captions 34-35, El coronavirus La cuarentena en Coro, Venezuela - Part 2

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Encontrarse (con)

 

Nos vamos a encontrar a las cuatro. -Ajá.

We're going to meet at four. -Uh-huh.

Caption 53, Yago 12 Fianza - Part 6

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Sí, me voy a encontrar con una amiga.

Yes, I'm going to meet a friend.

Caption 4, Muñeca Brava 46 Recuperación - Part 4

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To see more uses of the verb encontrar(se), be sure to look at this lesson on The Many Facets of the Verb Encontrar.

 

Quedar

 

y quedamos en la escuela por la mañana.

and we met at the school in the morning.

Caption 25, El Aula Azul Dos historias

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In Spain, where they often use the present perfect  more than in Latin America, the verb quedar is often heard in that tense to talk about "meeting" or "having made plans with" someone, as follows:

 

Hemos quedado a las ocho

We've made plans for eight o'clock/We're meeting at eight o'clock.

 

He quedado con Juan para ir al cine.

I've made plans with Juan to go to the movies. 

 

To learn more about this verb, check out this lesson on the various meanings of the verb quedar

 

Verse (con)

 

¿Usted cree que pueda verse con usted y con Amalia?

Do you think that he can meet with you and with Amalia?

Caption 43, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 1 - Part 5

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Juntarse (con)

 

A ver si nos juntamos,

Let's see if we can get together,

Caption 31, Festivaliando Mono Núñez - Part 13

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Asking Someone "To Meet"

If you want to ask a new (or old) friend, "Do you want to meet/hang out/get together"? you could use any of these verbs. Here are some examples of people asking other people to "meet" or get together: 

 

¿Nos podemos encontrar ahora?

Can we meet now?

Caption 51, Cuatro Amigas Piloto - Part 5

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Pero ¿en dónde nos podemos ver?

But where can we meet?

Caption 41, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 3 - Part 13

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You can also use the verb salir to ask someone "to go out" with you, which, like in English, might often (but not always) have a romantic connotation:

 

¿Te gustaría salir conmigo alguna vez? 

Would you like to go out with me sometime? 

 

"Meetings" in Spanish

So, how do you say "meeting" in Spanish, for example, a business or some other type of meeting? Let's take a look:

 

La junta

 

si acaso tengo alguna junta

if perhaps I have some meeting,

Caption 12, Yo estudio en el Tec de Monterrey

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La reunión

 

Yo sé pero entiéndame, tengo una reunión con mi jefe.

I know, but understand me, I have a meeting with my boss.

Caption 25, Tu Voz Estéreo Embalsamado - Part 6

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Note that when the noun la reunión means "the meeting" in Spanish, it can be thought of as a "false cognate," or word that sounds like an English word but actually means something different. However, along with el reencuentro and even el encuentro in some contexts, la reunión can also mean "reunion" as in "una reunión familiar" (a family reunion) or, alternatively, a social "meeting" or "gathering":

 

Usted me acaba de confirmar que ese tipo sí está aquí en esta reunión

You just confirmed to me that that guy really is here at this gathering,

Caption 30, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 5 - Part 10

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The noun el encuentro can additionally be used to talk about such a "gathering":

 

se crea un ambiente propicio para el encuentro familiar.

a favorable environment is created for family gatherings.

Caption 30, Coro, Venezuela La Zona Colonial

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Or, it might describe something on a larger scale, which might additionally be translated as something like a "conference":

 

vinimos a este encuentro nacional y... 

we came to this national meeting and...

Caption 25, Encuentro Volkswagen en Adícora Escarabajos en la playa - Part 2

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Chance "Meetings" (or "Encounters")

Note that you can also use el encuentro to describe an incident of "running into" someone, as in a chance "meeting" or "encounter," or even an "encounter" in terms of a "meetup" or "hookup" with a friend or more than a friend: 

 

Era Pablo Echarri, y luego de ese encuentro ya nada sería igual en la vida de ambos

It was Pablo Echarri, and after that encounter, nothing would be the same in their lives.

Captions 64-65, Biografía Natalia Oreiro - Part 6

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Bueno, yo creo que necesitaba un encuentro más personal.

Well, I think that I needed a more personal encounter.

Caption 3, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 12

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Note that the word "meeting" could be substituted for "encounter" in either one of these sentences.

 

Still More Ways "To Meet"

Although there are many more ways in which the verb and noun forms of "meet" can be used in English with different Spanish equivalents, let's conclude with a few additional examples:

 

Track Meets, etc.:

So, what if we are talking about a sports "meet"? This type of event is often referred to as una competencia (literally "a competition") or un campeonato (a championship), e.g. una competencia de atletismo (a track meet) or un campeonato de natación (a swim meet). And, although the noun el encuentro can sometimes refer to such events as well, in the context of sports, el encuentro might also be translated as "match" or "game":

 

el encuentro dura noventa minutos en total,

the game lasts for a total of ninety minutes,

Caption 17, Sergio El fútbol en España

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And, when two sports teams "meet" one another, the verb that is used is enfrentarse (literally "to face"), as in: Los dos equipos se enfrentaron (The two teams "met" or "faced off"). 

 

To Meet (As in "An Obligation"):

The verb used to talk about "meeting" or "fulfilling" a requirement or obligation is cumplir con:

 

El primer paso importante para ello es cumplir con todos los requisitos.

The first important step for it is to meet all of the requirements.

Caption 4, Raquel Abrir una cuenta bancaria

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Hence the noun for not fulfilling or "meeting" such duties, etc. is incumplimiento (nonfulfillment). 

 

To Meet (As in "Converge")

For our final example, the verbs that mean "to meet" in the sense of things "converging" or "coming together" include confluir and unirse. Let's look at an example with the latter (although the former could be substituted with the same meaning):

 

mucho movimiento, mucho tráfico porque se unen muchas calles importantes de la ciudad.

a lot of movement, a lot of traffic because many important streets of the city meet.

Captions 38-39, El Trip Madrid

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We hope that this lesson has taught you how to talk about the many forms of "meeting(s)" in Spanish. There are, of course, a lot more Spanish nouns and verbs that could be translated as "meet" or "meeting" in English in different contexts. Can you think of any more? Let us know with your suggestions and comments.

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In Sickness and in Health... in Spanish!

Like in English, wedding vows in Spanish mention loving a person en la salud y en la enfermedad (literally "in health and in sickness"), both of which it would behoove us to learn to converse about. 

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Asking Someone How They Feel

In order to ask someone how he or she feels, you might use the verb sentirse (to feel). Let's take a look:

 

¿Cómo te sientes, mi amor?

How are you feeling, my love?

Caption 18, Confidencial: Asesino al Volante Capítulo 3 - Part 6

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While this is the version with(the informal "you"), the one with usted (the formal "you") would be: ¿Cómo se siente? Some different ways of asking how someone is/how they are feeling with both tú and usted include:

 

¿Cómo te encuentras/se encuentra? (How are you feeling?/How do you feel?)

 

¿Cómo estás/está? (How are you?)

 

Conveying How You Feel

If you feel "fine" or "good" or "well," you might answer with Estoy bien (I'm well/fine), Me siento bien (I feel well/fine), or Me encuentro bien (I feel/am well/fine). But, what if you don't feel well? You might start with the negative versions of these utterances, such as No estoy bien (I'm not well), etc. Let's take a look:

 

porque no me encuentro bien

because I don't feel well.

Caption 10, Ariana Cita médica

 Play Caption
 

No me siento muy bienestoy un poco enferma

I'm not feeling too wellI'm a bit sick.

Caption 14, Disputas La Extraña Dama - Part 12

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Notice that the word for "sick" is enfermo/a. An alternative way to say you're sick in some countries is: Estoy malo/a (literally "I'm bad").

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¿Qué te pasa?

If someone says they aren't feeling well, you might ask that person: ¿Qué te pasa (a ti)? or ¿Qué le pasa (a usted )? (which might be translated as "What's wrong (with you)?" or "What's going on (with you)?) or the similar-meaning ¿Qué tiene(s)? (literally "What do you have?"). 

 

One way to answer this question might be to say what "hurts" (you), which is expressed with the verb doler (to hurt) plus an indirect object pronoun. Note that this verb falls into the category of verbs like gustar (to like), where there is a reversal in the traditional roles of the subject and object. Let's see a couple of examples:

 

Me duele la garganta,

My throat hurts,

Caption 11, Ariana Cita médica

 Play Caption

 

y ahora me duele mucho la cabeza.

and now my head hurts a lot.

Caption 31, Clara explica El cuerpo

 Play Caption

 

Another way to talk about pain in your head or some other body part (if you need to review the parts of the body in Spanish, check out this lesson on Body Parts in Spanish from Head to Toe or the video Clara explica- El cuerpowould be with the noun el dolor (the ache/pain), as in the following caption:

 

y otro tipo de dolor de cabeza que es el que explicábamos como migraña,

and another kind of headache which is the one that we were explaining as a migraine,

Caption 16, Los médicos explican Las migrañas

 Play Caption

 

And, if you want to talk about injuring those body parts in a more specific way, the following reflexive verbs might come in handy:

 

lastimarse: to hurt get hurt/injured or  hurt/ injure oneself

romperse: to break 

torcerse: to twist/sprain 

esguinzarse: to sprain

hacerse un esguince: to sprain

lesionarse: to get wounded/injured

 

Let's take a look at some examples in context:

 

Es... también me lastimé una rodilla, este... desgraciadamente. 

The thing is that I also hurt my knee, um... unfortunately.

Captions 29-30, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Manuel Orozco Sánchez - Part 1

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y me caí y me rompí la pierna.

and I fell and broke my leg.

Caption 19, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 16

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Las enfermedades

Although the noun la enfermedad can mean "disease" in the sense of a more serious issue, it can also refer to less serious maladies. Let's take a look at the Spanish names for a few of these:

 

La tos puede ser el resultado de un resfriado, una gripe,

The cough could be the result of a cold, a flu,

Caption 10, Cita médica La cita médica de Cleer - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

Although one way to say you "have a cold" is Estoy resfriado, the verb tener is typically used to say you "have" such sicknesses, as in the following captions: 

 

Tengo un resfriado.

I have a cold.

Caption 24, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 2: Sam va de compras - Part 1

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Tengo fiebre.

I have a fever.

Caption 12, Raquel Visitar al Médico

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cuando te duele la cabeza, tenés unas náuseas que te da asco todo.

when your head hurts, you have nausea that makes everything disgusting to you.

Caption 73, Muñeca Brava 43 La reunión - Part 5

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Additional things that you might "have" would be vómitos (vomiting), mareos (dizziness), or diarrea (diarrhea).

 

Sentirse mejor (Feeling better)

In order to help you sentirte mejor (feel better), the doctor might prescribe you some medicine. The verb for "to prescribe" is recetar, while the noun la receta means "the prescription" (it also means "recipe"). 

 

De mi parte, le voy a recetar Complejo B

As for me, I'm going to prescribe to you Complex B

Caption 77, Los médicos explican Diagnóstico: nervios y estrés

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Now, let's look at a few different ways to talk about "medicine":

 

te tomás tu remedio y te espero abajo.

take your medicine and I'll wait for you downstairs.

Caption 44, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 1

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La medicina puede ayudar, puede colaborar,

Medicine can help, can contribute,

Caption 51, Muñeca Brava 8 Trampas - Part 9

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Adrián, deberías tomar las pastillas que te di. 

Adrian, you should take the pills that I gave you.

Caption 40, El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos: Subjuntivo y condicional

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También le recetaré un jarabe.

I will also prescribe you a syrup.

Caption 26, Cita médica La cita médica de Cleer - Part 2

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However, the best medicine of all might be good old-fashioned rest:

 

Adicional, lo que yo le voy a recomendar es a descansar.

Additionally, what I am going to recommend to you is to rest.

Caption 73, Los médicos explican Diagnóstico: nervios y estrés

 Play Caption

 

We hope that this lesson has provided a good introduction to talking about how you feel, some various ailments, and some remedies for them, and we urge you to check out our supplemental materials such as the videos Visitar al médico (Visiting the Doctor) and La cita médica de Cleer (Cleer's Medical Appointment) as well as our series Los médicos explican (The Doctors Explain). And don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments

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Todo sobre los cumpleaños (All About Birthdays) in Spanish

Let's talk about cumpleaños (birthdays) in Spanish!

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Talking about Age in Spanish

To kick off our lesson on birthdays in Spanish, let's first recall that the way to say that you are a certain edad (age) in Spanish is tener años (literally "to have years"). So, if you wanted to ask someone how old they were in Spanish, you could say:

 

¿Cuántos años tienes?

How old are you?

Caption 11, El Aula Azul Los tutti frutti

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(or ¿Cuántos años tiene? when addressing someone as the more formal usted). And if someone asks you how old you are, you could say tengo (insert a number) años, as we see here:

 

Tengo dieciséis años.

I'm sixteen years old.

Caption 7, Cleer Entrevista a Lila

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Like in English, if you wanted to say just "I'm sixteen" without the "years old," you could omit the word años and say simply, "Tengo dieciséis." And, as you could say, "What's your age?" in English, in Spanish, you could say: 

 

¿Tú qué edad tienes? ¿Yo? Veinticuatro.

How old are you? Me? Twenty-four.

Captions 6-7, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 8

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(This question could be translated as "How old are you?" as well). If you need a refresher on the numbers in Spanish, we invite you to read this lesson on The Numbers from One to One Hundred in Spanish.

 

Finally, if you wish to speak more generally about age in Spanish, you might use adjectives like jóven (young), viejo/a (old),

adolescente (teenage/adolescent), de edad media (middle-aged), or anciano/a (elderly), although you shouldn't forget that la edad es solo un número (age is just a number)!

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How Do You Ask "When's Your Birthday?" in Spanish?

The Spanish word for birthday, (el) cumpleaños, comes from the verb cumplir años, which means "to have a birthday." Its literal meaning is something like "to complete" or "accomplish years," which makes sense since getting to the next age sometimes feels like an accomplishment! So, to ask someone when his or her birthday is, you might say: 

 

¿Cuándo cumple(s) (años)?

When's your birthday?

 

Cumple is, of course, the usted (formal "you") form, while cumples is the less formal version with . And the word años (years) is in parentheses because including it is optional, as you will see in the following clip that includes both versions (notice that the second instance of cumplir is conjugated with vos, or the informal "you" in certain regions):

 

¡No lo puedo creer! -¡Yo cumplo mañana! ¿Mañana cumplís años? -¡Sí, mañana! -¡Llegué pa' la fiesta!

I can't believe it! -My birthday is tomorrow! Tomorrow is your birthday? -Yes, tomorrow! -I arrived [just in time] for the party!

Captions 89-90, Muñeca Brava 3 Nueva Casa - Part 8

 Play Caption

 

We also see the first person conjugation with yo (I), which will come in handy when you want to tell someone when your birthday is:

 

Cumplo el dos de abril

My birthday is April second. 

 

Note that when this verb is used with a certain number, it means "to turn (a certain number of) years old."

 

Yo hoy cumplo treinta y seis años;

Today I turn thirty-six;

Caption 46, Clase Aula Azul Pedir deseos - Part 1

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And to say you "just turned" a certain age, you might say:

 

Tengo nueve años recién cumplidos. [Paula y Ester]

I just turned nine years old. [Paula and Ester]

Caption 3, Paula y Ester Los objetos de Paula

 Play Caption
 
Alternative ways to say this include "Acabo de cumplir nueve añosand "Recién cumplí nueve años.

 

To conclude this section, let's take a look at slightly more literal options for asking someone when his or her birthday is and saying when yours is, noting that tu and su are the less and more formal ways to say "your," respectively:

 

¿Cuándo es tu/su cumpleaños? -Mi cumpleaños es el dos de abril

When is your birthday? -My birthday is April second. 

 

Or, you could use the more colloquial, abbreviated form and say merely: "¿Cuándo es tu/su cumple?"

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Formal Birthday Terms

Another, more formal way to ask someone when they "were born" is with the verb nacer, with a question like:  "¿Cuándo naciste (tú)?" or "¿Cuándo nació (usted)?" Now, let's see how to say "I was born":

 

Nací el catorce de enero de mil novecientos ochenta y siete.

I was born on January fourteenth, nineteen eighty-seven.

Caption 18, Raquel Poner una denuncia

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As this question might evoke a more detailed response involving your birth month/year, if you need to review how to say these things in Spanish, check out these lessons on How to Write and Say the Months in Spanish and Saying Years in Spanish. And remember that, like in English, Spanish has a different word for "birthdate" (as opposed to "birthday"), which is fecha de nacimiento

 

Birthday Party Vocabulary

Now that you know how to talk about age and birthdays in Spanish, let's learn some vocabulary to festejar or celebrar (both mean "to celebrate") a feliz cumpleaños (happy birthday). 

 

Perhaps you want to plan a fiesta de cumpleaños (birthday party). The verbs for having, or throwing a party in Spanish include hacer (to make/do), preparar (to prepare), or organizar (to organize) una fiesta (a party):

 

Karla, sabes, me gustaría hacer una fiesta

Karla, you know, I'd like to have a party

Caption 10, Karla e Isabel Preparar una fiesta

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First, you'd better send out some invitaciones (invitations) to the lista de invitados (guest list). 

 

Ya he enviado las invitaciones a todos mis amigos

I have already sent the invitations to all my friends

Caption 3, Marta Vocabulario de Cumpleaños

 Play Caption

 

When the guests arrive, they just might come bearing regalos (gifts). The verb for giving a gift is regalar. They might also give you a tarjeta de cumpleaños, which can also be called a tarjeta de felicitación (literally a "congratulations card"). In fact, in addition to telling you "Feliz cumpleaños" on your birthday, Spanish speakers might say "Felicitaciones" (Congratulations) or "Te/le felicito" (I congratulate you).  

 

In terms of the decoraciones (decorations), you've got to have balloons! While globo is probably the most common word for "balloon" in Spanish, different countries have different words like balónvejiga (which also means bladder!), chimbombaor just bomba.

 

O una bomba de papel metalizado.

Or a silver paper balloon.

Caption 1, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 10 - Part 6

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And don't forget the cake! Words for "cake," which also vary from country to country, include la tarta, el pastel, la torta, and el bizcocho. Let's hear a couple of these in action:

 

Mirad, aquí está la tarta. Cumplo treinta y seis.

Look, here's the cake. I'm turning thirty-six.

Caption 11, Clase Aula Azul Pedir deseos - Part 1

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Un rol protagónico lo tiene el pastel de la quinceañera

The birthday girl's cake plays a leading role

Caption 33, Venezuela La tradición de los quince años

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In the second example, quinceañera refers to the birthday girl at a special, coming-of-age celebration for girls' fifteenth birthday that is celebrated in many Latin American countries (this word can also refer to the party itself). The video La tradición de los quince elaborates on this custom. 

 

And finally, let's talk about las velas (candles) that go on a birthday cake. The verb for "blowing" them (out) is soplar, during which the cumpleañero/a (birthday boy/girl) should pedir deseos (make wishes):

 

Y yo que soy la cumpleañera, pido un deseo y soplo las velas.

And I, as I'm the birthday girl, make a wish and blow out the candles.

Captions 13-14, Marta Vocabulario de Cumpleaños

 Play Caption

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The Happy Birthday Song in Spanish

And we mustn't forget the "Happy Birthday" song, which shares the same tune in English and Spanish. Let's listen to a couple of different versions in Spanish:

 

Cumpleaños feliz Cumpleaños feliz Cumpleaños felices Te deseamos a ti

Happy Birthday Happy Birthday Happy Birthdays We wish to you

Captions 6-9, Curso de guitarra Para los que empiezan desde cero - Part 3

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Que los cumplas feliz.

Happy birthday to you.

Caption 10, Marta Vocabulario de Cumpleaños

 Play Caption

 

That's all for today. To hear many of these Spanish birthday vocabulary words in action and learn some more, you might watch Marta- Vocabulario de cumpleaños. In the meantime, we hope you've enjoyed this lesson, and... don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments

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Talking About Hunger and Thirst in Spanish

Let's learn some common expressions to talk about being hungry or thirsty in Spanish (or to say we're not)!

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Saying "I'm Hungry" in Spanish 

The most common way to talk about "being hungry" in Spanish is with an idiomatic expression with the verb tener, which is tener hambre (literally "to have hunger"). So, if you wanted to say "I'm hungry," in Spanish, you'd say "Tengo hambre."

 

Fede, tengo hambre. Tengo hambre, Fede.

Fede, I'm hungry. I'm hungry, Fede.

Captions 34-35, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 1 - Part 7

 Play Caption

 

Now, let's listen to this verb in question form, conjugated with (the single familiar "you"):

 

¿Tienes hambre? 

Are you hungry?

Caption 39, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 1 - La llegada de Sam - Part 4

 Play Caption
 
 
The more formal usted version would, of course, be "¿Tiene (usted) hambre?

 

An alternative way to talk about hunger in Spanish is with the verb estar (to be) plus the adjective hambriento/a(s). Remember that in the case of adjectives, they must agree in terms of both gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the subject in question. Let's take a look at an example with a single, female speaker:

 

Y yo estoy hambrienta.

And I am hungry.

Caption 7, Cata y Cleer En el restaurante

 Play Caption

 

Now, let's look at some more dramatic ways to say "I'm hungry" in Spanish (something more akin to "I'm starving"). 

 

Sí, ¿y viene la comida o no? Pues yo estoy muerto de hambre.

Yes, and is the food coming or not? I am dying of hunger.

Caption 35, Muñeca Brava 44 El encuentro - Part 6

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The adjective muerto/a(s) literally means "dead," of course, but the expression estar muerto/a(s) de hambre is roughly equivalent to the English "dying of hunger." Let's see a couple more:

 

¿por qué no me invita a desayunar algo que estoy que me muero de hambre?

why don't you serve me something for breakfast since I'm dying of hunger?

Captions 37-38, Tu Voz Estéreo Embalsamado - Part 5

 Play Caption

 

¿Pero será que podemos comer ya, por favor, que me estoy desmayando de hambre?

But could we please start eating since I'm passing out from hunger?

Caption 45, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 12 - Part 3

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Saying "I'm Thirsty" in Spanish 

Tener sed (literally "to have thirst") is probably the most common way to say "I'm thirsty" in Spanish. In the first person this would be: "Tengo sed(I'm thirsty). Now, let's look at an example with :

 

Es muy útil si tienes sed y necesitas beber agua.

It's very useful if you're thirsty and need to drink water.

Caption 29, El Aula Azul Adivina qué es - Part 1

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And, in the same way you could say you are "dying with hunger," you could also use estar muerto/a(s) de sed to say you are "dying of thirst":

 

¡Estabas muerta de sed!

You were dying of thirst!

Caption 1, Muñeca Brava 47 Esperanzas - Part 5

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Another way to say "to be thirsty" in Spanish is estar sediento/a(s):

 

y yo... yo estoy muy, muy sedienta.

and I... I'm very, very thirsty.

Caption 42, Kikirikí Agua - Part 3

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To ask you if you're thirsty, someone might say "¿Tiene(s) sed?(Are you thirsty?) or simply ask:

 

¿Quieres tomar algo, Pablo?

Do you want something to drink, Pablo?

Caption 28, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 1 - La llegada de Sam - Part 2

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Although this might initially sound like "Do you want to take something?" to a non-native speaker, remember that the verb tomar additionally means "to drink" in Spanish. The common expression "¿Quiere(s) tomar algo?" is thus used to ask someone in Spanish if he or she would "like something to drink."

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Saying "I'm Not Hungry/Full" in Spanish

So, what if you want to say you're not hungry in Spanish? You can simply use the verb tener hambre with the word "no" in front of it:

 

Pero igual no tengo hambre.

But anyway, I'm not hungry.

Caption 58, Muñeca Brava 3 Nueva Casa - Part 6

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Another option would be the verb llenarse (to be full). So, if someone asks you if you're hungry, you might use this verb in the preterite (simple past) tense to say:

 

No, gracias. Ya me llené.

No, thank you. I'm full (literally: "I already got full"). 

 

Now let's listen to this verb in the present:

 

Se infla, como que se llena,

You get bloated, like, you get full,

Caption 44, Los médicos explican Consulta con el médico: la diarrea

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An additional way to say you are full in Spanish is with the verb estar (to be) plus an adjective. Although you might hear satisfecho/a(s) (literally "satisfied") or, in some regions, repleto/a(s)lleno/a(s) is the most common adjective that means "full" in Spanish, as we see in the following example:

 

Estoy lleno. No puedo comer más.

I'm full. I can't eat any more. 

 

This adjective might also be used with the verb sentirse (to feel):

 

y para mantenerte y sentirte lleno.

and to stay and feel full.

Caption 29, Natalia de Ecuador Alimentos para el desayuno

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This brings us to a popular Spanish saying that is reminiscent of the English idiom "The way to a man's heart is through his stomach": 

 

Barriga llena, corazón contento.

Full belly, happy heart.

Caption 36, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 2 - Part 1

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To learn a lot more fun Spanish phrases, check out this lesson on Yabla's Top 10 Spanish Idioms and Their (Very Different!) English equivalents

 

We hope that this lesson has helped you to learn several ways to talk about hunger and thirst in Spanish, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments

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The Spanish Word of the Year 2021

Last year, we chose the word pandemia (pandemic) as the Spanish Word of the Year. This year, our choice was a bit predictable. In fact, after reading our lesson about The Spanish Word of the Year 2020, one of our users sent us a message with a very accurate prediction. The following are his words:

 

"Dear friends from Yabla,

The Spanish Word of the Year 2020 is pandemia. And the Spanish Word for the Year 2021 will be vacuna!

Thanks for all the work, take care and stay safe."

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"Vacuna": The Spanish Word of the Year 2021

And yes! He was totally right! The Word of the Year 2021 is vacuna (vaccine). Let's hear how that word sounds in Spanish:

 

Espero que pronto puedan conseguir una vacuna y dar fin a esta situación.

I hope they can get a vaccine soon and end this situation.

Captions 17-18, El coronavirus La cuarentena en Coro, Venezuela - Part 2

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The Spanish word vacuna comes from the English word "vaccine," which in turn comes from the Latin word "vaccīnus," meaning "of or from a cow." In fact, there was a cow involved in the first ever vaccine: the smallpox vaccine developed by British scientist Edward Jenner.

 

Vacuna, however, wasn't the only trendy word this year. Just like last year, most of the runner-up words were related to the coronavirus pandemic, this year, some of our runners-up are linked to the word vacuna. Let's take a look at some of the other terms that defined 2021.

 

BY THE WAY, HAVE YOU SEEN OUR SPECIAL SERIES ABOUT THE CORONAVIRUS? CHECK IT OUT!

 

Runners-up for 2021 Spanish Word of the Year

 

dosis (dose)

y también a disminuir las dosis necesarias de insulina

and also to reduce the necessary doses of insulin

Caption 55, Los médicos explican Beneficios del ozono

 Play Caption

 

Keep in mind that because the word dosis is a paroxytone noun ending in "s," it has the same form in singular and plural:

la dosis (the dose)

las dosis (the doses)

 

For more about this topic, please check out our lesson about the rules for forming the plurals of nouns in Spanish.

 

síntoma (symptom)

 

La verdad es que no tiene, pues, ningún síntoma, pues, por ejemplo que tenga poco apetito,

The truth is that he doesn't have, well, any symptoms, well, for example if he has lack of appetite,

Captions 70-71, Animales en familia Un día en Bioparc: Microchip para Nacahué - Part 1

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variante (variant)

As in the Delta or Omnicron variants.

 

impredecible (unpredictable)

Just recently, The Economist stated this: "it is time to face the world’s predictable unpredictability." It seem like impredecible is going to stay trendy for a little while. In the meantime, let's see how to say it:

 

Llueve, hace frío... frío, hace frío, llueve, todo... ah... aquí... es impredecible.

It rains, it's cold... cold, it's cold, it rains, everything... uh... Here... it's unpredictable.

Caption 27, Peluquería La Percha Félix

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híbrido (hybrid)

If you have been following the conversation about how people are working nowadays, you know why this word is on this list. While some workers have gone back to the office, there are millions of people around the world whose work model is now a hybrid one that mixes on-site and off-site work. Along those lines, another trendy word is teletrabajo (telecommuting):

 

Por ejemplo, las compañías han tenido que acudir al teletrabajo para seguir con sus actividades productivas

For example, companies have had to resort to telecommuting to continue with their production activities,

Captions 35-36, El coronavirus Efectos y consecuencias

 Play Caption

 

And that wraps up Yabla's Spanish Word of the Year for 2021. Do you agree with our choice? Can you think of any other pertinent term(s) that we didn't mention? What is your prediction for next year's Word of the Year? Please feel free to share with us your comments and suggestions, and here's to hoping that 2022 is a better year!

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Las 10 resoluciones de Año Nuevo más comunes (Top 10 New Year's Resolutions)

Have you thought about your resoluciones de Año Nuevo (New Year's resolutions) yet? Let's go over ten of the most common propósitos de Año Nuevo (another Spanish term for "New Year's resolutions") and find out how to talk about them in Spanish. 

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The Top 10 New Year's Resolutions 

 

1. Bajar de peso (Lose weight)

After a season of comer de más (overeating), a lot of us feel we have put on a few libras (pounds) or kilos (kilograms, since much of the Spanish-speaking world uses the metric system) and wish to adelgazar (lose weight) in the New Year. 

 

Entonces, en un sentido es, quiero bajar de peso,

So, in one sense it's, I want to lose weight,

Caption 22, Cuentas claras Sobreviviendo enero - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

Another way to say "to lose weight" in Spanish is perder peso.

 

2. Hacer más ejercicio (Exercise more)

Related to losing weight and ponerse en forma (getting in shape) or volver a estar en forma (getting back in shape) is exercising. Let's see how to say this in Spanish: 

 

quiero hacer ejercicio

I want to exercise,

Caption 23, Cuentas claras Sobreviviendo enero - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

3. Empezar algún hobby nuevo (Start a new hobby)

One way to get in more physical activity might be to take up some new exercise-related hobby like el yoga (yoga), la natación (swimming), or pole dancing, to name a few, and, in fact, empezar un pasatiempo nuevo (starting a new hobby) is another common New Year's resolution.

 

Claro. Es muy importante romper con la rutina diaria y hacer cosas diferentes. Te hará sentirte mejor y desconectar del estrés.

Of course. It's very important to break the daily routine and do different things. It will make you feel better and disconnect from stress.

Captions 14-18, Karla e Isabel Nuestros hobbies

 Play Caption

 

Of course, hobbies range from physical activities to more cerebral pursuits, and for a plethora of hobby ideas and how to say them in Spanish, check out this lesson on Yabla's Top 40 Hobbies in Spanish.

 

4. Dejar de fumar/tomar alcohol (Stop smoking/drinking)

Also related to such fitness/health metas (goals) are quitting smoking and drinking (either permanently or for a while): 

 

Dejar de fumar, dejar de tomar alcohol. Por eso voy a dejar de tomar.

Give up smoking, give up drinking alcohol. That's why I am going to stop drinking.

Captions 52-53, Los médicos explican La hipertensión

 Play Caption

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5. Ahorrar dinero (Save money)

Another common resolution is to get in shape financieramente (fiscally) rather than físicamente (physically):

 

y en el lado financiero, quiero salir de deudas, quiero comenzar a ahorrar, quiero hacer un presupuesto.

and on the financial side, I want to get out of debt, I want to start to save, I want to create a budget.

Captions 25-26, Cuentas claras Sobreviviendo enero - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

6. Pasar más tiempo con amigos y familia (Spend more time with family and friends)

Pasar tiempo (spending time) with our seres queridos (loved ones) might not seem like something we have to vow to do more of, but we all too often neglect it due to being ocupados (busy), estresados (stressed), or enfocados en nuestro trabajo (focused on our jobs). And, the pandemic has definitely made us value our ability to spend time with people more than ever before. 

 

Eh... Tengo muchísimas ganas porque hace mucho tiempo que no veo a la familia y a los amigos.

Um... I really want to because it's been a long time since I've seen my family and friends.

Captions 8-9, El Aula Azul Conversación: Planes de fin de semana

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7. Viajar más (Travel more)

Having taken away our ability to travel for a time, the pandemic has also made many of us long to do so even more. A travel-related resolution might be hacer más viajes (to take more trips) generally or perhaps to finally take that special trip one has long been planning:

 

Quiero viajar a Japón este año.

I want to travel to Japan this year.

Caption 63, Clase Aula Azul Pedir deseos - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

8. Leer más (Read more) 

Carlos puts it very simply:

 

Lea más libros.

"Lea más libros" [Read more books].

Caption 42, Carlos explica El modo imperativo 2: Irregulares, Usted + plurales

 Play Caption

 

Although the aforementioned stressors might make us feel like we don't have time for la lectura (reading), many set this as a resolution because they know it can enrich their vocabulary and/or language abilities while simultaneously providing a valuable escape. 

 

9. Organizarse (Get organized)

Organizarse (getting organized) might entail cleaning up our clutter or picking up after ourselves more regularly:

 

Ahora sí, mi dormitorio está en orden.

At last, my bedroom is organized.

Caption 43, Ana Carolina Arreglando el dormitorio

 Play Caption

 

Another aspect of organization might be writing things down to avoid forgetting them or overbooking:

 

Pues yo, Montse, me lo apunto en la agenda, ¿eh?

Well, I, Montse, am writing it down in my planner, huh?

Caption 78, Amaya Teatro romano

 Play Caption

 

10. Vivir la vida a lo máximo (Live life to the fullest)

This is a more general resolution that could include having el coraje (the courage) to tackle some or many of the previous resolutions we have mentioned, as well as simply learning to vivir y valorar el momento (live and appreciate the moment). It is the notion of making the most out of each day and doing things to work towards inner paz (peace), alegría (happiness), and equilibrio (balance), while not perder oportunidades (missing out on opportunities), the specifics of which are, of course, different for each person. Let's take a look at some clips that reflect this sentiment:

 

y que vivan una experiencia, que vivan realmente el momento,

and that they live an experience, that they really live the moment

Captions 25-26, Melany de Guatemala Su Método de Actuación

 Play Caption

 

No tengas miedo. Debes ser fuerte y arriesgarte.

Don't be afraid. You should be strong and take risks.

Captions 44-45, De consumidor a persona Short Film - Part 1

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Entonces, vale la pena aprovechar la oportunidad.

So, it is worth it to take advantage of the opportunity.

Caption 29, Outward Bound Fabrizio

 Play Caption

 

Cumplir con los propósitos de Año Nuevo

Now that we have established them, ¿cómo cumplir con los propósitos de Año Nuevo (how do we keep our New Year's resolutions)? With a lot of enfoque (focus), disciplina (discipline), and determinación (determination), and by setting objetivos realistas (realistic goals) and working on them poco a poco (bit by bit). That said, les deseamos mucha suerte (we wish you a lot of luck) following through with your New Year's resolutions a largo plazo (in the long term)... and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments!

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A Few Outstanding Differences between Castilian and Latin American Spanish

What are some differences between Castilian Spanish from Spain and Latin American Spanish? As with North American and British English, there are many more similarities than differences, and Spanish speakers from all countries can usually understand one another in spite of differences between continents, countries, and even regions. That said, this lesson will point out a few key differences between Castilian and Latin American Spanish that might aid your understanding of and/or communication with different Spanish speakers. 

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Pronunciation

You may have noticed that the letters "c" and "z" are pronounced with a "th" sound in Castilian Spanish in order to distinguish them from the letter "s." Let's take a look:

 

Muchas gracias.

Thank you very much.

Caption 88, Ana Teresa Canales energéticos

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Although it sounds like Ana Teresa from Spain says "grathias," you will note that there is no difference in the pronunciation of the "c" and the "s" in Latin American Spanish. To confirm this, let's hear Ana Carolina from Ecuador pronounce this same word:

 

Muchas gracias por acompañarnos hoy;

Thank you very much for joining us today;

Caption 37, Ana Carolina El comedor

 Play Caption

 

Yabla's Carlos and Xavi provide a lot more examples of this pronunciation difference in this video about the difference in pronunciation between Spain and Colombia

 

Vosotros/as vs. Ustedes

Spanish speakers from both Spain and Latin America tend to address a single person formally with the pronoun usted and use (or vos in certain Latin American countries and/or regions) in more familiar circumstances. However, Castilian Spanish additionally makes this distinction for the second person plural forms: they formally address more than one person as ustedes and employ vosotros/as, along with its unique verb conjugations, in less formal ones. Let's look at an example with this unique-to-Spain pronoun. 

 

Practicáis un poco vosotros ahora.

You guys practice a bit now.

Caption 105, Clase Aula Azul El verbo gustar - Part 5

 Play Caption

 

Most Latin American speakers, on the other hand, do not use vosotros/as and instead use ustedes to address more than one person, regardless of whether the situation is formal or informal.

 

O sea menos que los... -No, ustedes tienen que hacer dos acompañamientos

I mean less than the... -No, you guys have to make two side dishes

Caption 68, Misión Chef 2 - Pruebas - Part 8

 Play Caption

 

Although the teacher in this video, who is from Mexico, refers to his individual students with the informal prounoun , as a group, he refers to them as ustedes. For more information about the pronouns vosotros/as and ustedes, we recommend Carlos' video Ustedes y vosotros.

 

Use of Present Perfect vs. Preterite 

Another difference you might notice when speaking to someone from Spain is the more prevalent use of the present perfect tense (e.g. "I have spoken," "we have gone," etc.) to describe things that happened in the recent past in cases in which both Latin Americans and English speakers would more likely use the simple past/preterite. Let's first take a look at a clip from Spain:

 

Oye, ¿ya sabes lo que le ha pasado a Anastasia? No, ¿qué le ha pasado?

Hey, do you know what has happened to Anastasia? No, what has happened to her?

Captions 4-5, El Aula Azul Conversación: Un día de mala suerte

 Play Caption

 

Now, let's look at one from Argentina:

 

¿Pero qué le pasó?

But what happened to her?

Caption 92, Muñeca Brava 43 La reunión - Part 5

 Play Caption

 

While the speakers in both videos use the same verb, pasar (to happen), to describe events that took place that same day, note that the speaker from Spain chooses the present perfect ha pasado (has happened), which would be less common in both Latin American Spanish and English, while the Argentinean speaker opts for the preterite pasó (happened). 

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Vocabulary

There are many terms that are said one way in Spain and a totally different way in Latin America (with a lot of variation between countries, of course!). Although there are too many to name, Yabla has put together our top ten list of English nouns and verbs whose translations differ in Spain and Latin America. 

 

1. Car: El coche vs. el carro/auto 

Spanish speakers from Spain tend to use the word coche for "car":

 

Hoy vamos a repasar cómo alquilar un coche.

Today we are going to go over how to rent a car.

Caption 2, Raquel Alquiler de coche

 Play Caption

 

Although the word carro would instead refer to a "cart" or "carriage" to Spaniards, this is the word most commonly used to say "car" in many countries in Latin America:

 

Recójalas allí en la puerta y tenga el carro listo, hermano.

Pick them up there at the door and have the car ready, brother.

Caption 54, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 2 - Part 4

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Auto is another common Latin American word for "car":

 

El auto amarillo está junto al dinosaurio.

The yellow car is next to the dinosaur.

Caption 18, Ana Carolina Preposiciones de lugar

 Play Caption

 

2. To Drive: Conducir vs. manejar

And speaking of cars, while the verb conducir is the most typical way to say "to drive" in Spain, Latin Americans are more likely to utter manejar. Let's compare a clip from Spain to one from Colombia:

 

Ahora os vamos a dar algunos consejos que nos ayudarán a conocer mejor nuestro coche y a conducirlo.

Now we are going to give you some advice that will help us get to better know our car and how to drive it.

Captions 2-4, Raquel y Marisa Aprender a conducir - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

Usted sabe que para mí manejar de noche es muy difícil por mi problema de la vista.

You know that for me, driving at night is very difficult because of my vision problem.

Captions 50-51, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 3 - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

3. To Take: Coger vs. tomar

When listening to someone from Spain speak about "taking" or "grabbing" something, from the bus to an everyday object, you are likely to hear the verb coger:

 

Puedes coger el autobús.

You can take the bus.

Caption 6, Marta Los Modos de Transporte

 Play Caption

 

While you may occasionally hear coger in this context in some Latin American countries, it is less common and, in fact, even considered vulgar in some places. Hence the more common way to say this throughout Latin America is tomar.

 

Te vas a ir a tomar un taxi

You are going to go take a taxi

Caption 7, Yago 12 Fianza - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

4. Computer: El ordenador vs. la computadora

Let's check out some captions from Spain to find out the word for "computer" there:

 

Puede hacer uso del ordenador con el nombre de usuario y la contraseña que he creado para usted. 

You can make use of the computer with the username and the password that I have created for you.

Captions 23-24, Negocios Empezar en un nuevo trabajo - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

And now, let's see a video from Mexico to hear the most prevalent term for "computer" throughout Latin America:

 

El uso de las computadoras y el internet forman parte de la educación de los estudiantes 

The use of computers and the internet are part of the students' education

Captions 38-39, Aprendiendo con Karen Útiles escolares - Part 2

 Play Caption
 

5. Juice: El zumo vs. el jugo

Not only can we hear the Castilian Spanish word for "juice" in this clip, but also the aforementioned "th" pronunciation of the "z":

 

Sí, un zumo de naranja.

Yes, an orange juice.

Caption 26, Raquel Presentaciones

 Play Caption

 

Latin Americans, in contrast, usually call juice jugo:

 

Y jugo de naranja y jugo de manzana.

And orange juice and apple juice.

Caption 23, Cleer y Lida El regreso de Lida

 Play Caption

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6. Peach: El melocotón vs. el durazno

Many fruits and vegetables have different names in different countries, and one such example is peaches, which are called melocotones in Spain and duraznos in Latin America. Let's hear these words in action in videos from Spain and Colombia:

 

Macedonia de frutas. -Sí. Por ejemplo con melocotón

Fruit salad. -Yes. For example, with peach.

Captions 52-53, Recetas Tortilla

 Play Caption

 

Me volvió a gustar la compota de durazno 

I started liking peach baby food again,

Caption 4, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 7 - Part 1

 Play Caption
 

7. Apartment: El piso vs. el departamento/apartamento

Another set of words that differ significantly are the words for "apartment": piso in Spain and departamento or apartamento in Latin America, as we can see below in these videos from Spain and Argentina:

 

Vender un piso se ha puesto muy difícil,

Selling ​​an apartment has become very difficult,

Caption 39, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 1

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Tienes un lindo departamento, realmente. -Gracias.

You have a nice apartment, really. -Thank you.

Caption 27, Yago 10 Enfrentamientos - Part 3

 Play Caption

 

8. Cell phone: El móvil vs. el celular 

In Spain, you'll hear people talking about their moviles, or cell phones:

 

mi móvil funciona, normalmente.

my cell phone works, usually.

Caption 22, Clase Aula Azul Se involuntario - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

As we can hear in the following clip, Mexicans and other Latin Americans instead say celular

 

¡Eh! ¿Tienes tu celular?

Hey! Do you have your cell phone?

Caption 55, Conversaciones en el parque Cap. 1: No tengo mi teléfono.

 Play Caption

 

9. Glasses: Las gafas vs. los lentes

Many articles of clothing are called different things in different countries, and "glasses" are no exception, as we see via examples from Spain and Mexico:

 

Tiene el pelo gris y lleva gafas.

He has gray hair and wears glasses.

Caption 30, El Aula Azul Adivina personajes famosos - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

También tienes unos lentes.

You also have some glasses.

Caption 13, Conversaciones en el parque Cap. 1: No tengo mi teléfono.

 Play Caption

 

10. Socks: Los calcetines vs. las medias:

Let's conclude with the words for "socks" in Spain vs. Latin America, with videos from Spain and Venezuela:

 

Una chaqueta y unos calcetines también... calientes.

A jacket and some socks, too... warm ones.

Caption 25, Un Viaje a Mallorca Planificando el viaje

 Play Caption

 

Además, esos animales huelen peor que mis medias después de una patinata.

Besides, those animals smell worse than my socks after a skating spree.

Captions 10-11, NPS No puede ser 1 - El concurso - Part 11

 Play Caption

 

To hear even more examples of vocabulary that differs from Spain to Latin America, we recommend Carlos and Xavi's video on some differences in vocabulary between Spain and Colombia. We hope you've enjoyed this lesson, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments

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¡Felices Fiestas (Happy Holidays)!

Let's take a look at some holiday-themed videos to get in a festive mood! We'll also point out some similarities and differences between the ways in which this December//January época de fiestas (holiday season) is celebrated in the United States versus various Spanish-speaking countries.

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La Navidad (Christmas)

As much of Spain and Latin America is Catholic or Protestant, most of the Spanish-speaking world celebrates la Navidad (Christmas):

 

Al fin y al cabo, la Navidad es una época en que los sueños se hacen realidad,

After all, Christmas is a time when dreams come true,

Caption 32, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 10 - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

That said, different Spanish-speaking countries have different ways of kicking off the Christmas season. In Colombia, it starts quite early: 

 

Pero oficialmente celebramos la Navidad el siete de diciembre que es El día de las velitas o del alumbrado.

But we officially celebrate Christmas on December seventh, which is the Day of the Little Candles or Lighting [Day].

Captions 20-21, Cleer y Lida La Navidad en Colombia

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This clip is from the video La Navidad en Colombia (Christmas in Colombia), which we recommend you tune into to learn more about Colombian Christmas traditions. Las novenas is another festivity celebrated during this season in Colombia and other countries, and it marks the kickoff of Ecuador's Christmas celebrations:

 

Novena significa "nueve", de "nueve días". Por eso se le ora y se le canta del dieciésis de diciembre al veinticuatro.

"Novena" means "nine," from "nine days." That's why it's prayed and sung to on December sixteenth to the twenty-fourth.

Captions 29-31, Cleer y Lida La Navidad en Colombia

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In this clip, Cleer and Lida describe the tradition of praying to a pesebre (Nativity scene), which Ana Carolina explains more in detail in her video Símbolos de Navidad (Symbols of Christmas). Let's now move on to the Basque Country in Spain, where the La Feria de Santo Tomás inaugurates the Christmas season:

 

Esta feria es la que marca el inicio de la Navidad en varias ciudades del País Vasco,

This fair is the one that marks the beginning of Christmas in several cities in the Basque Country,

Captions 8-9, Viajando con Fermín La Feria de Santo Tomás

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La Nochebuena (Christmas Eve)

Although people from the United States tend to celebrate el 25 de diciembre (December 25th), or Christmas, as the season's main day, el 24 de diciembre (December 24th), or la Nochebuena (Christmas Eve), is the most important day in many Latin American countries, and often the day when los regalos se intercambian (presents are exchanged):

 

Solo un día y sería Nochebuena. Y siempre había que hacer una compra de última hora.

Just one more day and it would be Christmas Eve. And there was always a last-minute purchase to make.

Captions 40-41, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 10 - Part 5

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Los regalos (Presents)

On the topic of presents, many people receive presents from their families, of course, but also from other popular characters that differ from country to country. One such character is Papá Noel (Santa Claus), who is also known as Viejito Pasquero in countries like Chile. And speaking of Santa, we invite you to see this video on a jolly Santa from Venezuela:

 

ho ho ho, los quiero muchísimo. 

ho, ho, ho, I love you guys very much.

Caption 42, Víctor en Caracas Santa Claus

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In Colombia, it is El Niño Dios or El Niño Jesús (Baby Jesus) who leaves presents under the tree for children, whereas Spanish children receive most of their gifts after Christmas on a holiday called el Día de los Reyes Magos (Three Kings Day) on el seis de enero (January sixth). 

 

Y... ¿qué les vas a pedir a los Reyes Magos después de Navidad?

And.... what are you going to ask the Three Wise Men for after Christmas?

Caption 56, El Aula Azul Ester y Paula

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Símbolos y costumbres de navidad (Christmas Customs and Symbols)

Many costumbres navideñas (Christmas traditions) and símbolos (symbols) overlap in the United States and Spanish-speaking countries. These include, of course, los árboles de Navidad (Christmas trees)!

 

Este es mi árbol de Navidad, el símbolo más popular alrededor del mundo de esta festividad.

This is my Christmas tree, the most popular symbol of this celebration around the world.

Captions 21-22, Ana Carolina Símbolos de Navidad

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These also include la nieve (snow)... even in the tropics (which is probably because Santa lives at el Polo Norte (the North Pole)! 

 

Sin embargo, la nieve y los muñecos de nieve se han convertido en uno de los temas principales con los que festejamos la Navidad,

However, snow and snowmen have become one of the main themes with which we celebrate Christmas,

Captions 38-40, Ana Carolina Símbolos de Navidad

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Charitable activities are also popular during Christmas in both North and Latin America and Spain, as Diana Quintana tells us in her video En Navidad regalamos una sonrisa (At Christmas, We Give the Gift of A Smile).

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Comidas navideñas (Christmas Foods) and Villancicos (Carols) 

Of course, food is part of the Christmas celebration everywhere, although what is eaten varies from country to country. While many North Americans eat a meal very similar to the Thanksgiving feast for Christmas, each country gives la cena de Navidad (Christmas dinner) its own unique twist.

 

The same is true of traditional holiday fare, and to get a few ideas, we invite you to watch Ana Carolina make her version of eggnog, el ponche navideño (Christmas Punch), while Luis is eager to show you Venezuela's traditional Christmas pan de jamón (ham bread). You can also learn to make buñuelos, a popular Colombian holiday dessert, which Lida and Cleer prepare while singing a villancico (Christmas carol). 

 

And, on the topic of Christmas carols, Yabla has quite a few for you, including the Spanish versions of Jingle BellsSilent Night, and Santa Claus is Coming to Town (by none other than Luis Miguel!), as well as A la Nanita Nana and Campana sobre campana (Bell Over Bell). You might also want to check out Christmas pop hits like Estoy buscando a Santa Claus (I'm Looking for Santa Claus) and the classic Feliz Navidad (Merry Christmas) by La Oreja de Van Gogh.

 

While traditions like food and carols overlap, other traditions are more specific to the Spanish-speaking world, and to learn more about them, we invite you to read this lesson on Christmas Vocabulary in Spanish.

 

Hanukkah

Of course, a significant portion of the Spanish-speaking world is Jewish and thus celebrates Hanukkah rather than Christmas, a holiday that shares the gift-giving tradition as well:

 

Y aunque no es la versión hebrea de la Navidad, los niños reciben regalos, y la comunidad celebra en hermandad. 

And, although it's not the Jewish version of Christmas, the children receive gifts, and the community celebrates in brotherhood.

Captions 5-7, Días festivos Hanukkah

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To learn more about this celebration, Yabla recommends this video on the meaning behind Hanukkah

 

In closing, whether you celebrate Christmas or Hanukkah or Kwanzaa or anything else, we'll leave you with the following:

 

¡Feliz Navidad, Felices Fiestas, Feliz Año

Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, Happy New Year!

Caption 68, Ana Carolina Símbolos de Navidad

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 And don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.

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Valentine's Day in Spanish: Vocabulary and Traditions

In preparation for El Día de San Valentín (Valentine's Day), let's listen to several pertinent clips from the Yabla Spanish video library... and learn some vocabulary in the process!

 

Aunque no crean, existe el amor a primera vista

Believe it or not, love at first sight does exist.

Caption 56, El reencuentro Las amigas hablan del trabajo y el amor.

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Cupido vuelve a apuntar con su flecha

Cupid aims with his arrow again

Caption 5, Tito El Bambino Llueve el amor

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Mande a pedir un ramo de doce rosas rojas

Order a bouquet of twelve red roses,

Caption 45, Programación de oficina El dictado del jefe

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Chocolate Perfección: el chocolate para enamorados.

"Chocolate Perfección": the chocolate for lovers.

Captions 43-44, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 5: Ha nacido una estrella - Part 2

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Valentine's Day in North America 

The captions above include some common themes and traditions of Valentine's Day in North America, which is meant to  festejar el amor  (celebrate love) for romantic partners and family members, and, increasingly, to show appreciation for friends. Typical ways of doing so include  intercambiar regalos (exchanging gifts) and tarjetas de San Valentín  (valentines), mandar flores (sending flowers), most typically rosas rojas (red roses), giving cajas de chocolate en forma de corazón (heart-shaped boxes of chocolate), and planning special citas (dates), such as salir a cenar (going out to dinner). Valentine's Day in North America is celebrated on el catorce de febrero (February fourteenth).

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Valentine's Day in the Spanish-Speaking World

Valentine's Day is celebrated in a similar fashion on the same day in many Spanish speaking countries, with varying degrees of popularity. In addition to El Día de San Valentín, many countries refer to this holiday as El Día del Amor y la Amistad (Love and Friendship Day) or El Día de los Enamorados (Lovers' Day), while some use these terms interchangeably. And Guatemala has a unique name: El Día del Cariño (Affection Day).

 

Many Valentine's costumbres (traditions) in the Spanish-speaking world overlap with North American ones:

 

La floristería. ¿Sí? Es una tienda donde la gente compra flores, plantas, ¿sí? Por ejemplo, para cumpleaños, o para... en... en primavera, o para el Día de los Enamorados, por ejemplo.

The florist. Right? It's a store where people buy flowers, plants, right? For example, for birthdays, or for... in... in spring, or for Valentine's Day, for example.

Captions 3-6, Curso de español Tiendas y edificios públicos en la ciudad

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However, there are some differences. In Chile, las orquídeas (orchids) are the flowers of love rather than roses. And some countries, like the Dominican Republic, have the tradition of a game called Amigo secreto (Secret Friend) or Angelito (Little Angel) among friends or colleagues, which is similar to the idea of Secret Santa. 

 

Valentine's Day Alternatives

Some countries celebrate their Valentine's Day on a different date, while others commemorate both February 14th and additional love and friendship holidays. 

 

Colombia's El Día del Amor y la Amistad falls on the third Saturday in September, while Argentina's La Semana de la Dulzura (Sweetness Week), where amigos (friends) and amantes (lovers) exchange chocolate and other dulces (sweets), lasts from June 1st through 7th. Argentinians also recognize El Día del Amigo (Friend Day) on July 20th, whereas Mexico has its El Día Internacional de la Amistad (International Friendship Day) on August 30th. Additional romantic holidays include El Día del Estudiante, de la Juventud, de la Primavera, y del Amor (The Day of the Student, Youth, Spring, and Love) on September 21st in Bolivia and El Día de San Jorge (Saint George's Day) in Catalonia on April 23rd, where red roses are traditionally gifted to women and books to men. On El Día de San Dionisio (Saint Dionysius Day) in Valencia on October 9th, the gift of choice is the Spanish sweet mazapán (marzipan) wrapped in a pañuelo (handkerchief).

 

Valentine's Day Verbs

Now that we know about various international Valentine's-like festivities, let's learn some romantic Spanish vocabulary, starting with some verbs:

 

abrazar: to hug/embrace

acurrucar: to cuddle 

adorar: to adore/love

amar: to love

besar: to kiss 

coquetear: to flirt 

casarse: to marry/get married

enamorarse: to fall in love

encantar: to [cause] love

gustar: to [cause someone to] like 

querer: to like/love

 

Related to these words are, of course, essential Valentine's Day nouns like  el beso (the kiss) and el abrazo (the hug) and adjectives like enamorado/a (in love). Let's hear a few of these words in action:

 

Me quiero casar con ella. Estoy enamorado, ¿eh?

I want to marry her. I'm in love, huh?

Caption 59, Muñeca Brava 2 Venganza - Part 9

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¿Y no te alcanza el tiempo para coquetear con cierto chico... rubio, guapo, encantador?

And don't you have enough time to flirt with a certain guy... blond, handsome, charming?

Captions 116-117, NPS No puede ser 1 - El concurso - Part 10

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Siento que cada día te quiero más

I feel that each day I love you more

Caption 27, Alberto Barros Mano a mano

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Since the subtle differences between the different "love" verbs can seem a bit confusing for English speakers, we recommend our lessons on three different ways to express love in Spanish and Amar y Querer. And, since the way that verbs like gustar and encantar  work can feel a bit counterintuitive, we recommend this two-part lesson on Querer vs. "To Like": A Difference in Perception.

 

Terms of Endearment

Let's conclude today's lesson with some ways to refer affectionately to your romantic partner, although you might additionally hear many of them used among friends. While we will provide their literal translations below, many of them can be used similarly to the way that the terms "honey," "dear" or "sweetie" are used in English. 

 

Amor: love

Cariño: affection

Corazón: heart

Mi cielo: my sky

Mi rey/reina: my king/queen

Mi vida: my life

Querido/querida: dear

 

Let's hear a few of these in action:

 

y te mando un beso, corazón.

and I send you a kiss, sweetheart.

Caption 11, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 3 - Part 7

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Dame un beso. -¿De verdad, mi cielo?

Give me a kiss. -Really, my dear?

Caption 64, Confidencial: Asesino al Volante Capítulo 1 - Part 3

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¡Mi reina! Mi amor, cómo te extrañé. -Hola, yo también.

My queen! My love, how I missed you. -Hello, me too.

Captions 1-2, Yago 6 Mentiras - Part 2

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And remember that while gordo/a literally means "fat" or "fatty," it is also used as a term of endearment in some Latin American countries (although we definitely don't recommend employing it's English equivalent!).

 

Ay, gordo, muchísimas gracias por haber estado aquí. -A ti por invitarme.

Oh, honey, thank you very much for having been here. -To you for inviting me.

Caption 13, Club 10 Capítulo 2 - Part 4

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We hope that this lesson rife with Valentine's Day vocabulary has been useful to you, and  ¡Feliz Día de San Valentín (Happy Valentine's Day)! And don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments

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Yabla's Top 40 Hobbies in Spanish

Let's talk about hobbies in Spanish! Hobbies, or pursuits in which one engages in his or her tiempo libre (free time), can range from things you do, to things you study, to things you collect... and more! 

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How Do You Say "Hobby" in Spanish? 

There are three main ways to say "hobby" in Spanish, one of which is the English word "hobby":

 

Pues, a mí me encanta bailar. Ese es mi hobby favorito. -OK,

Well, I love to dance. That is my favorite hobby. -OK,

Captions 7-8, Cleer Hobbies

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The Spanish word pasatiempo is another way to say "hobby." You might remember it as being similar to the English word "pastime":

 

Ya ustedes... Todo mundo sabe qué es béisbol. Pero no el profesional, solamente como pasatiempo.

You already... Everybody knows what baseball is. But, not the professional [kind], just as a hobby.

Captions 50-51, Peluquería La Percha Félix

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La afición is yet another way to say "hobby" in Spanish:

 

Vale... o sea que habéis conseguido transformar vuestra afición en vuestra profesión, ¿no?

OK... in other words, you guys have managed to transform your hobby into your profession, right?

Caption 72, Novalima Entrevista - Part 2

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Top 40 Hobbies in Spanish

Now that you know how to say "hobby" in Spanish, we'll introduce you to the Spanish words for a multitude of different pastimes you might take up with examples from our Spanish video library. Since some internet hobby lists include as many as 1,001 hobbies, we narrowed it down to Yabla's Top 40 Hobbies in Spanish.

 

1. Acting: la actuación

Also known as el teatro (theater), la actuación (acting) could be a fun thing to study, perhaps culminating in participation in una obra de teatro (a play). The verb associated with la actuación is actuar (to act).

 

En esta universidad afortunadamente tenemos grandes talleres de teatro, de actuación, de música

At this university, fortunately, we have big workshops for theater, acting, music,

Captions 14-15, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Ana

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2. Astrology: la astrología

Estudiar astrología (studying astrology) involves the observation of celestial bodies like the sun (el sol), the moon (la luna), the stars (las estrellas), and the planets (los planetas) for the purpose of predicting traits or events. 

 

porque el fin último de la astrología es ser una herramienta de autoconocimiento.

because the ultimate goal of astrology is to be a tool for self-knowledge.

Caption 18, Conversaciones con Luis Astrología

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As there is some terminology overlap with la astronomía (astronomy), this lesson on Astronomy 101 in Spanish might come in handy, while the above-cited video on astrology might pique your interest. 

 

3. Baking: la panadería

La panadería (baking) might be a fun (and tasty) pursuit! Alternative Spanish words for "baking" in Spanish include la repostería and el horneado, while the verb hornear means "to bake."

 

Estudié panadería profesional y pastelería moderna en dos universidades de allá. 

I studied professional baking and modern pastry making in two universities there.

Caption 6, Misión Chef 2 - Pruebas - Part 3

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If you love baking, Yabla videos about baking such delectable dishes as Colombian buñuelosLeche asada (also from Colombia), Ecuadorian Chaqui Tanda, or even a good old chocolate cake, might be right up your alley. 

 

4. Bargain hunting: la búsqueda de gangas

Who doesn't love a good ganga (bargain)? If you find them particularly intriguing, la búsqueda de gangas (or "bargain hunting," which could also be conveyed with the verb buscar gangas) might be right for you!

 

Los ricos también buscan gangas

Rich people also hunt for bargains

Caption 13, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 1

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The above-cited caption is from a series entitled Gangas para ricos (Bargains for Rich People).

 

5. Birdwatching: la observación de aves

Many people find realizar observación de aves (the verb for "birdwatching") to be an interesting and educational activity to do al aire libre (outdoors).

 

La Unidad Operativa de Punta Norte, que es por excelencia, bueno, un punto de observación de aves

The Operational Unit of Punta Norte, which is, par excellence, well, a birdwatching point

Captions 24-25, Perdidos en la Patagonia Península Valdés

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6. Chess: el ajedrez

Popular mundialmente (worldwide), el ajedrez (chess) is both a fun and cerebral pastime. You can describe the action of "playing chess" with the verb jugar al ajedrez.

 

Este... mis pasatiempos, me fascina lo que es el ajedrez.

Um... my hobbies, I love chess.

Caption 27, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Manuel Orozco Sánchez - Part 1

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7. Collecting: reunir

The verbs reunir and coleccionar both mean "to collect" while una colección refers to "a collection" of some artículo (item). Popular items to collect include las camisetas (t-shirts), los sellos (stamps), las tazas (mugs), los postales (postcards), las tarjetas de beisbol (baseball cards), and even los coches (cars), although, unless they are carros de juguete (toy cars), the latter is most probably less accessible to the masses!

 

Él ha conseguido reunir una gran variedad de modelos de las grandes marcas de automóvil:

He has managed to collect a great variety of models from the big automobile brands:

Captions 11-12, Málaga Museo del automóvil

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8. Cocktails: los cócteles 

A "cocktail" hobby might include simply tasting (probar) exotic drinks at various coctelerías (cocktail bars) or, alternatively, practicing la coctelería (which also means "bartending") or la mixología (mixology), the art of making alcoholic beverages oneself!

 

Mezclamos el hielo en todos nuestros cócteles y mucha azúcar.

We mix the ice in all our cocktails and a lot of sugar.

Caption 36, Otavalo Restaurante 'Carbón de Palo'

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You might kick off your cocktail hobby by making this simple recipe for Ponche Navideño (eggnog, or literally "Christmas Punch").

 

9. Cooking: la cocina

La cocina is the noun for "cooking" while the verb cocinar means "to cook."

 

Y también me gusta mucho cocinar. Ahora mismo, voy a un curso de cocina,

And also I really like to cook. Right now, I'm going to a cooking class,

Captions 37-38, Marta Se presenta

 Play Caption

 

For cooking aficionados, Yabla has many tasty recipe ideas, including Spanish crema de broccoli, Colombian pollo sudado, and Venezuelan arepas, just to name a few. You can also delve deeper into Spanish cuisine with the series La Cocina de María (María's Kitchen)while Misión Chef (Mission Chef) takes you behind the scenes of a Mexican cooking competition for underprivileged kids. 

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10. Cycling: el ciclismo

"Cycling" or "biking" are known as el ciclismo in Spanish, while the verbs to describe this action range from practicar ciclismo (literally "to practice cycling") to andar/montar en bici ("to bike" or "ride a bike"). Bici is, of course, short for la bicicleta (the bicycle). 

 

De por sí el ciclismo es un... es un deporte de.... del pueblo,

In itself, cycling is a... is a sport of... of the people,

Caption 34, Semilleros Escarabajos Chapter 2 - Part 1

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To glean more insight into the world of professional cycling, we recommend the above-referenced series entitled Semilleros Escarabajos from Colombia, where cycling is considered by many to be the national sport. 

 

11. Dance: el baile

El baile is the noun for "dance," and bailar (to dance) is probably one of the first verbs you learned when studying Spanish. Dancing provides a creative outlet as well as buen ejercicio (good exercise). 

 

Me encanta bailar,

I love to dance,

Caption 33, El Aula Azul Los profesores de la escuela - Part 1

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There are so many styles of dance you might choose to study, such as ballet, tap, jazz, and hip-hop, or Latin styles like salsa, bachata, cumbia, merengue, flamenco, and more. 

 

12. Dining out: salir a comer

Verbs like salir a comer, salir a cenar, or comer afuera describe the popular hobby of "dining out" or "going out to eat" at restaurants, enabling one to try una variedad (a variety) of cocinas (cuisines). 

 

¿Vamos a salir a comer, señor Urrutia?

Are we going to go out to eat, Mister Urrutia?

Caption 28, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 2 - Part 1

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13. Drawing: el dibujo

The hobby known as el dibujo (drawing/sketching) has been associated with improved self-confidence and mental health. The verb dibujar means "to draw," while the verbs bosquejar and bocetar mean "to sketch."

 

eh... primero que todo le doy gracias a Dios por haberme dado esta capacidad de expresión que es el dibujo.

um... first of all, I give thanks to God for having given me this capacity for expression, which is drawing.

Captions 75-77, Bucaramanga, Colombia Pintor callejero

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If drawing interests you, you might try this video about Mexican illustrator Antonio Vargas

 

14. Film: el cine

This hobby might entail the frequent viewing of películas (movies/films) at el cine (the movie theater), studying la historia del cine (the history of film/cinema), or perhaps even "filmmaking" (which can also be known as el cine or el rodaje) yourself. 

 

y me encanta ver películas en el cine.

and I love watching movies at the movie theater.

Caption 33, El Aula Azul Los profesores de la escuela - Part 2

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15. Geography: la geografía

Many people are passionate about estudiar geografía (studying geography), which examines both physical locations on la Tierra (Earth) and the relationship between people and their sociedades (societies).

 

Pero me di cuenta que cuando uno estudia geografía y estudia el mundo, en realidad eso es un reflejo de nuestra mente.

But I realized that when one studies geography and studies the world, that is actually a reflection of our minds.

Captions 50-51, Outward Bound Danny

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16. Gardening: la jardinería

"Gardening" can be known as la jardinería or el cuidado de un jardín (literally "the care of a garden"). Verbs for "to garden" include cuidar un jardín, cultivar, or plantar

 

Seguro que a muchas de vosotras y vosotros os gusta la jardinería

Surely many of you like gardening

Caption 2, Fermín La plumeria - Part 1

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Gardening fans might enjoy Yabla host Fermín's video on an interesting flower called la plumeria

 

17. Golf: el golf

We don't think you'll have a hard time remembering how to say "golf" in Spanish: el golf. Jugar al golf, on the other hand, means "to play golf."

 

son alumnos del instituto José Cadalzo de San Roque y son unos apasionados por el golf.

they are students from the José Cadalzo de San Roque Institute and they are golf enthusiasts.

Captions 4-5, Club de las ideas Biodiesel - Part 1

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If golfing is your cup of tea, try the video Pasión por el golf (Passion for Golf).

 

18. Horseback riding: la equitación

While the nouns la equitación and la cabalgata mean "horseback riding," the verb montar a caballo means "to ride a horse."

 

Recuerda también que tenemos cursos de música y cursos de equitación,

Also remember that we have music courses and horseback riding courses,

Captions 27-28, El Aula Azul Conversación: Los cursos de español - Part 1

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This clip references horseback riding as one of the many activities available in addition to learning Spanish at El Aula Azul language school in San Sebastián, Spain. 

 

19. Hiking: el senderismo

"Hiking" in Spanish is known as el senderismo or el excursionismo. "To hike" or "take a hike" might be described with verbs like practicar senderismo/excursionismohacer una caminata or simply subir

 

justo aquí encima de mí, está el Monte Ulía, que es perfecto para practicar senderismo

right here above me, is Monte Ulía [Mount Ulía], which is perfect for hiking

Captions 15-17, El Aula Azul Barrio de Gros

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20. Juggling: el malabar

If you are looking for a more exotic hobby, el malabar (a.k.a. malabarismo, or "juggling") could be your thing! Verbs that mean "to juggle" include hacer malabares and hacer juegos malabares.

 

y ya entramos en el malabar.

and then we get into juggling.

Caption 16, Juan Sánchez Clase de circo

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21. Kitesurfing: el kite

"Kitesurfing" is often known as el kitesurfing, el kitesurf, or simply el kite in Spanish, and the action is hacer kitesurf, etc.

 

Estamos en una escuela de kite.

We're at a kitesurfing school.

Caption 3, Adícora, Venezuela La Posada Sea Club - Part 2

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Kitesurfing may not be available everywhere, but Yabla has had the opportunity to travel to a prime kitsurfing location, Adícora, Venezuela, and made a lot of videos related to this topic! You might take a look at Darío y el kitesurfing, La Posada Sea Club, and Adícora Kite Club, just to name a few. 

 

22. Knitting: el tejido

We're sure your friends will be delighted with all of the prendas (garments) and other manualidades (crafts) you make them when you take up "knitting," which can be known in Spanish by names such as el tejido, el punto, and la calceta. The action of knitting is commonly called tejer or hacer punto.

 

Nosotros no hacemos solamente un tejido sino hacemos en varias formas de tejido.

We don't just do one [kind of] knitting, but rather do various types of knitting.

Caption 23, Otavalo Jorge, creador de atrapasueños

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23. Language learning: el aprendizaje de idiomas

As you already know, aprender un idioma (the verb for "learning a language," while el aprendizaje is the noun) can be both challenging and rewarding!

 

Hola, y bienvenido a Yabla español, el programa revolucionario para el aprendizaje de español.

Hello, and welcome to Yabla Spanish, the revolutionary program for the learning of Spanish.

Captions 1-2, Spanish INTRO Karola

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We hope that Yabla is helping your own language journey, and also recommend our sister site Go Spanish by Yabla to reinforce what you are learning with small group or private classes. 

 

24. Makeup: el maquillaje

El maquillaje is also an increasingly popular hobby for which one can find many online tutorials. The action of applying makeup or "making (someone) up" is called maquillar while applying makeup to oneself is expressed with the reflexive verb maquillarse

 

y hoy voy a maquillar a mi amiga, Catalina, que necesita un maquillaje para una entrevista.

and today I am going to make up my friend, Catalina, who needs a makeup application for an interview.

Captions 9-10, Maquillaje Con Cata y Cleer

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Of course, makeup could be for every day as Cleer demonstrates in her video Maquillaje- Con Cata y Cleer or theatrical, as Mónica shows in her theatrical makeup demonstration on how to age our faces! 

 

25. Meditation: la meditación

There are a variety of different técnicas (techniques) with which one can meditar (to meditate), some of which are done in conjunction with movement such as yoga or tai chi, which is known as "meditation in motion."  

 

Con la meditación, ejercitamos nuestra capacidad de permanecer abiertos,

With meditation, we exercise our capacity to remain open,

Captions 21-23, Ana Carolina La meditación

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Learn more about meditation with Ana Carolina or participate in a guided meditation with Ana Teresa

 

26. Painting: la pintura

Get your creative juices flowing with la pintura, which can refer generally to the art of "painting" or the "paint" itself. The verb pintar means "to paint." 

 

Entonces, este... yo estaba pintando en esa época 

So, then... I was painting at that time

Caption 8, Arturo Vega Entrevista - Part 3

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Series like Leonardo Rodriguez Sirtori - Una vida como pintor as well as the videos Claudia y su pintura and María Marí- Pasión por su arte can give you greater insight into a painter's life. 

 

27. Photography: la fotografía

With the advent of smart phones that take higher quality photos all the time and the opportunity to filter and display photos on popular social media sites, it seems that more and more people are becoming interested in la fotografía (photography). The people who take photos are known as fogógrafos/as (photographers), and the action of taking photos is expressed with sacar or tomar fotos.

 

Si te gusta la fotografía, estoy seguro de que disfrutarás adentrándote por sus callejuelas estrechas,

If you like photography, I'm sure you'll enjoy losing yourself in its narrow streets,

Captions 30-31, Viajando con Fermín Sevilla - Part 1

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28. Poetry: la poesía

La poesía (poetry) fascinates many people, whether it entails simply reading it (leer poesía) or writing it oneself (escribir poesía).

 

¿Escribes poesía? -Sí.

You write poetry? -Yes.

Caption 69, Karla e Isabel Palabras

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29. Pole dancing: el pole dance 

El pole dance (pole dancing) is an incredibly aerobic activity that is no longer limited to just strip clubs!

 

Vengo a compartir con ustedes hoy un tema sumamente interesante: los beneficios del pole dance.

I've come to share with you today an extremely interesting topic: the benefits of pole dancing.

Captions 2-4, Melyna Pole dance

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Apparently, pole dancing has enjoyed particular popularity in Ecuador in recent days, as Melyna shares with us in her video entitled Pole dance

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30. Pottery: la cerámica

In the popular series Los Años Maravillosos (the Colombian version of The Wonder Years), Kevin's mom finds an escape from her everyday life by signing up for una clase de cerámica (a pottery class), and maybe you can too!

 

Es que me inscribí en el curso de cerámica de la parroquia.

It's just that I enrolled in the church's pottery class.

Caption 20, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 12 - Part 3

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31. Playing an instrument: tocar un instrumento 

Tocar un instrumento means "to play" or "playing an instrument."

 

y que quería aprender a tocar la guitarra 

and that I wanted to learn to play the guitar

Caption 18, Luis Guitarra Influencias musicales - Part 1

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To learn the names of musical instruments you might play in Spanish, try Spanish singer-songwriter Luis Guitarra's Instrumentos musicales or Karla e Isabel- Instrumentos musicales. Alternatively, the Curso de guitarra (Guitar Course) series can teach you how to play some simple chords and tunes. 

 

32. Reading: leer

The pastime "reading" is most typically described by the verb leer (to read). Reading is, of course, a great hobby for improving one's vocabulario (vocabulary) as well as opening one's mente (mind).

 

Sobre mis "hobbies", por ejemplo, me gusta mucho leer. 

About my hobbies, for example, I love reading.

Caption 17, Burgos María de los Ángeles

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33. Running: correr

Interestingly, the word correr can be both a noun meaning "running" and a verb meaning "to run." Taken straight from English, el jogging is also used to talk about this hobby that relieves stress and builds endurance. 

 

En el próximo febrero quince, voy a correr la maratón de Austin, Texas, 

Next February fifteenth, I'm going to run the marathon in Austin, Texas,

Captions 28-29, Cerro de Ancón Entrenamiento

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34. Soccer: el fútbol

El fútbol is an internationally popular deporte (sport) with very enthusiastic fanáticos (fans), whether they prefer to simply watch los partidos de fútbol ​(soccer matches) or jugar al fútbol ​(play soccer) themselves.

 

Los viernes, juego al fútbol con mis amigas.

On Fridays, I play soccer with my friends.

Caption 21, Ariana Mi Semana

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35. Surfing: el surf

"Surfing" is called el surf in Spanish, and the verb for "to surf" is surfear.

 

Una de mis grandes aficiones desde niña es el surf

One of my big hobbies since I was a little girl is surfing,

Caption 4, Ana Teresa Yoga y surf

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For videos on surfing, try this one on the Costa Azul Surf Shop in Los Cabos, Baja, Mexico, and Ana Teresa's video on yoga and surfing as complementary practices.

 

36. Swimming: la natación

La natación is an excellent, low-impact way to get exercise, which many find muy relajante (very relaxing). The verb nadar means to "swim."

 

Para nosotros, que amamos este deporte, la natación es nuestro estilo de vida. 

For us, who love this sport, swimming is our lifestyle.

Captions 24-25, Víctor en Caracas La natación

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For swimming-related videos, try La natación or Socorrismo en Málaga (Lifeguarding in Málaga).

 

37. Tennis: el tenis

El tenis (tennis) could be an exhilarating and physically-challenging deporte (sport) to try. Jugar al tenis means "to play tennis."

 

Me gusta mucho jugar al tenis.

I really like to play tennis.

Caption 21, Marta Se presenta

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38. Traveling: viajar

Traveling is known by the verb that means "to travel," viajar, whereas the noun los viajes refers to one's "travels" or "trips." We agree with the sentiment expressed in the following clip: 

 

y obviamente que viajar siempre viene bien

and obviously traveling always does one good

Caption 47, GoSpanish Entrevista con María Sol

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39. Wine tasting: catar vinos

The wine tasting hobby is often described with the verbs catar vinos or probar vinos. A wine tasting event, on the other hand, is known as una cata de vinos or una degustación de vinos

 

Lo primero que vamos a hacer cuando vamos a probar un vino, es mirar el color.

The first thing we're going to do when we're going to taste a wine is to look at the color.

Captions 32-33, Montserrat Cata de vinos - Part 1

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Via Yabla's video library, you can attend a Cata de vinos (wine tasting) with Amaya or try Montserrat's favorite wines.

 

40. Yoga: el yoga

We doubt you'll have trouble remembering the name for "yoga" in Spanish since it is the same as in English with a masculine article: el yoga. Practicar yoga (to practice yoga) is the action.

 

y mucha gente no sabe todo lo que hay detrás del yoga, que no es solamente un ejercicio físico,

and many people don't know everything there is behind yoga, which isn't just a physical exercise,

Captions 9-11, Ana Teresa Introducción al yoga

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To learn more about the many beneficios (benefits) of this practice, tanto físicos como espirituales (both physical and spiritual), we offer you this yoga series with Ana Teresa as well as the series Bienestar con Elizabeth (Well-being with Elizabeth) with whom you can practice along! Meanwhile, Rosa introduces to a type of yoga you may or may not be familiar with: Yoga con burros (Yoga with Donkeys)!

 

We hope you've enjoyed this lesson on Yabla's Top 40 Hobbies in Spanish, and perhaps gotten inspired to take up something new! For more on the general topic of hobbies, check out Hobbies by Cleer or Nuestros hobbies (Our Hobbies) by Karla and Isabel, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments

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Talking About Thanksgiving in Spanish

Let's learn some vocabulary to talk about the North American holiday el Día de Acción de Gracias (Thanksgiving) in Spanish! 

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When Is Thanksgiving?

Thanksgiving takes place cada año (each year) on el cuarto jueves de noviembre (the fourth Thursday in November), which is, of course, la estación de otoño (the fall season). For a plethora of fall-related words, check out this lesson on Spanish Vocabulary for the Autumn Season.

 

The History of Thanksgiving 

La historia (the history) of Thanksgiving is polémica  (controversial). Although many of us learned about a harmonious festín (feast) between los peregrinos (the pilgrims) and los nativos de América del Norte (the Native Americans), the previous and subsequent bloodshed have led many to rethink the way Thanksgiving is taught or whether they should celebrate it. In fact, many Native American tribes observe Thanksgiving as a day of luto (mourning).

 

That said, the idea of dar las gracias (giving thanks) is una costumbre (a tradition) that predates the so-called first Thanksgiving in mil seiscientos veintiuno, or 1621 (See this lesson on saying the years in Spanish!). It is a federal holiday in the United States that is cherished by many for the purpose of juntarse (getting together) with one's seres queridos (loved ones) to darse un banquete (feast) and festejar (celebrate) the things for which they feel agradecidos (grateful).

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Traditional Thanksgiving Feast

Although the pilgrims probably didn't eat Turkey at the first Thanksgiving, it has become the staple of many Thanksgiving meals:

 

Un pavo real como los peregrinos

A real turkey like the pilgrims.

Caption 60, Calle 13 Cumbia de los Aburridos

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Let's take a look at the words for many additional components of the traditional Thanksgiving feast that appear in videos from the Yabla Spanish library:
 

de puré de patata suave, entonces... eso es lo que vamos a perseguir.

smooth mashed potatoes, so... that's what we are going to seek.

Caption 14, Cómetelo Crema de brócoli - Part 4

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Es solomillo ibérico, relleno

It's Iberian tenderloin with stuffing.

Caption 72, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 6

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Podéis utilizar también cualquier otra verdura que os guste, como calabaza o judías verdes

You can also use any other vegetable that you like, such as pumpkin or green beans.

Captions 16-17, La cocina de María Cocido Malagueño

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¡Ah! -...arándanos rojos. -¡Arándanos rojos

¡Ah! -...cranberries. -Cranberries!

Caption 34, Cleer y Lida Picnic

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Y el dulce de batata también.

And the sweet potato jam also.

Caption 17, Muñeca Brava 2 Venganza - Part 4

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Here are some additional Thanksgiving food words that might come in handy:

 

Apple pie: el pastel de manzana, la torta de manzana

Brussels sprouts: los coles de Bruselas, los repollitos de Bruselas

Dinner rolls: los pancitos, los panecillos, los rollos

Corn: el maíz

Gravy: la salsa de carne, la salsa espesa, la salsa

Pecan pie: la tarta de nuez pecana, la tarta de pecana

Pumpkin pie: el pastel de calabaza

Yams: los ñames

 

Thanksgiving Activities and Symbols

In addition to comer (eating), many people congregate to watch fútbol americano (football) or view the famous desfile (parade) the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, be it on TV or en persona (in person).

 

They might also decorate their homes with such Thanksgiving símbolos (symbols) as las velas (candles), el maíz criollo (Indian corn), las calabazas (gourds), and los cuernos de la abundancia (cornucopias or horns of plenty). 

 

However, the most important Thanksgiving activity (and indeed every day!) is giving thanks, which we think Claudia Montoya sings quite nicely about this in this clip:

 

Por eso cada día quiero dar las gracias Por todo lo que yo tengo, también lo que no tengo

That's why I want to give thanks every day For everything I have, what I don't have as well

Captions 12-13, Claudia Montoya Volverte a abrazar

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Some other ways to talk about being grateful and giving thanks in Spanish include:

 

agradecer: to thank, to express gratitude/thanks

estar agradecido/a por: to be grateful for

sentirse afortunado/a: to feel fortunate/blessed

sentirse bendecido/a: to feel blessed

sentirse agradecido/a por lo que uno tiene:  to count one's blessings (literally "to be grateful for what one has")

las bendiciones: the blessings

 

On that note, les agradecemos mucho (We thank you very much) for reading this lesson on Thanksgiving terms in Spanish. We hope you've enjoyed it, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments

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¡Feliz Halloween! (Happy Halloween!)

Today's lesson will highlight clips from our Yabla Spanish library to teach you some pertinent terms to talk about many people's favorite holiday... Halloween!!! So get ready, and enjoy this lesson about Halloween in Spanish!

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How do you say Halloween in Spanish?

Although Halloween is primarily thought of as a North American holiday, its fun festivities have been adopted by many countries throughout the world. When we speak about Halloween in Spanish, we typically keep its English name:

 

Esta noche es Halloween y seguro que muchas veces habéis pensado disfrazaros con vuestra mascota

Tonight is Halloween and surely you've thought many times of dressing up with your pet

Captions 137-138, Animales en familia Un día en Bioparc: Coatís

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This caption describes the common Halloween costumbre (custom) of disfrazarse (dressing up). You'll note from the previous sentence that costumbre means "custom" or "tradition" rather than "costume" as you might think, making it somewhat of a false cognate. On the other hand, the correct way to say "the costume" in Spanish is el disfraz.

 

Ay, Aurelito, ¿me prestarías un disfraz?

Oh, Aurelito, would you lend me a costume?

Caption 32, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 2

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What other vocabulary words might we associate with Halloween? We might start by reviewing some Spanish vocabulary for the autumn season since Halloween falls at that time of year. We could then move on to some of Halloween's personajes más espeluznantes (spookiest characters).

 

Halloween Characters in Spanish

Let's look at some video clips that include the names of some of the most typical Halloween characters:

 

¿Quién no ha querido a una diosa licántropa

Who hasn't loved a werewolf goddess?

Caption 5, Shakira Loba

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porque sí sé... ahí está el monstruo.

because I know... here's the monster.

Caption 29, Antonio Vargas - Artista Comic

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El fantasma y la loca se quieren casar

The ghost and the madwoman want to get married

Caption 24, Gloria Trevi Psicofonía

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En la época, eran utilizadas para espantar las brujas 

In the era, they were used to scare away witches

Caption 46, Viajando en Colombia Cartagena en coche - Part 2

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And speaking of espantar (to scare away), let's look at some additional Spanish words that mean "to scare," "be scared," or "scary."
 

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"Scary" Halloween Terms

To Scare:

Let's look at another verb that means "to frighten" or "scare": 

 

o cuando hay una fecha importante, ellos salen... a divertir y a asustar a la gente porque están como unos diablos.

or when there is an important date, they go out... to amuse and to frighten people because they're [dressed] like devils.

Captions 45-46, El Trip Ibiza

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And, in addition to asustar, we learn the word for another Halloween character: un diablo (a devil). Let's see another verb that means "to scare": 

 

¡Me da miedo! -¡Ahí te tienes que quedar, ya está!

It scares me! -There you have to stay, ready!

Caption 24, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 7

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Note that the noun el miedo means "the fear," and the verb dar miedo (literally "to give fear") can thus mean either "to scare" or "be scary." When employed in conjunction with an indirect object pronoun to indicate to whom this action is happening (le in this case, which corresponds with usted), the most common translation is "to scare," as we see in this caption. 

 

To Be Scared:

So, what if we want to say that we "are" or "feel scared"? A common verb for this is tener miedo (literally "to have fear"), as seen in this caption with the Halloween-appropriate noun la oscuridad (the dark/darkness):

 

¡Porque le tiene miedo a la oscuridad!

Because he's afraid of the dark!

Caption 24, Guillermina y Candelario El parque de diversiones - Part 2

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The reflexive form of asustar, asustarse, also means "to be" or "get scared":

 

Aparecieron unos cazadores, y el patito se asustó mucho

Some hunters appeared, and the duckling got really scared

Caption 36, Cleer El patito feo

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Yet another way to talk about being "scared" in Spanish is with adjectives like asustado (scared) or aterrorizado (terrified): 

 

Llegan muy asustados, muy aterrorizados,

They arrive very scared, very terrified,

Caption 25, Los Reporteros Caza con Galgo - Part 3

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For more on the ways in which verbs, adjectives, and nouns can be used to describe our feelings, be sure to check out our lesson on expressing emotions in Spanish

 

Scary:

Let's conclude this section with a few ways to express the concept of "scary":

 

¡Uy, qué miedo!

Oh, how scary!

Caption 21, Guillermina y Candelario La Peluqueria del Mar - Part 1

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Literally meaning "What fear!" the Spanish expression ¡Qué miedo! is a common way to say "how scary" something is. We can also use our previously-mentioned verb dar miedo (this time without the indirect object pronoun) to convey the idea of "being scary":

 

Eh... Sí. Lo desconocido siempre da miedo.

Um... Yes. The unknown is always scary.

Caption 13, Yago 13 La verdad - Part 8

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We can also say "scary" with adjectives like escalofriante, sinestro/a, or miedoso/a:

 

¿Y esa calavera tan miedosa?

And that very scary skull?

Caption 20, Guillermina y Candelario Un pez mágico - Part 2

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And with the word for "the skull" in Spanish (la calavera), we come to our last category: Halloween objects! 

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Halloween Objects 

If we know how to say "skull," we had better find out how to say "skeleton" in Spanish:

 

con una forma parecida a la del esqueleto de un dinosaurio,

with a shape similar to that of a dinosaur's skeleton,

Caption 30, Raquel Valencia - Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias

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So, where might we find such esqueletos? Why, in their tumbas (graves) in el cementerio (the cemetery) of course!

 

en Ricardo, en su tumba en el cementerio,

about Ricardo in his grave in the cemetery,

Caption 28, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 10 - Part 8

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So, let's set the scene in that cemetery with a "full moon" in Spanish, which might inspire some hombre lobo (another word for "werewolf") to come out:

 

la luna llena Por los cielos azulosos, infinitos y profundos esparcía su luz blanca 

And the full moon In the bluish skies, infinite and profound, scattered its white light

Captions 11-12, Acercándonos a la Literatura José Asunción Silva - "Nocturno III"

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Now, let's focus on some slightly less ominous symbols of Halloween such as el gato negro (the black cat), seen in its diminutive form in the following caption:

 

También está este gatito negro

There's also this black kitty

Caption 73, Fermín y los gatos Mis gatas vecinas

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The "pumpkin" is, perhaps, the most famed Halloween symbol of all:

 

Justo en el doblez del papel, trazamos la mitad de la calabaza.

Right on the fold of the paper, we draw half of the pumpkin.

Caption 67, Manos a la obra Papel picado para Día de muertos

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And finally, we associate Halloween with trick-or-treating, or going door to door to get "candy":

 

Y ahora cortamos pedacitos de caramelo.

And now we cut little pieces of candy.

Caption 38, Manos a la obra Postres de Minecraft

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The way to say "Trick or treat!" varies from region to region, but some popular ways are: "Dulce o truco" in Argentina, "Dulce o travesura" in Mexico, and the more literal but less accurate "Truco o trato" (from the verb "tratar," or "to treat") in Spain, where they also say "Dulce o caramelo." In Colombia, you might hear "Triqui, triqui," where kids sing the following song:

 

Triqui triqui Halloween/Quiero dulces para mí/Si no hay dulces para mí/se le crece la naríz,

which translates as:

Trick or treat, Halloween/I want treats for me/If there are no treats for me/Your nose will grow.

 

Meanwhile, Pedir dulce o truco/travesura, etc. can be used to talk about the action of  "trick-or-treating."

 

Halloween Vocabulary in Review

Let’s conclude today’s lesson with a review of the Halloween vocabulary we have learned:

 

el Halloween: Halloween

¡Feliz Halloween! Happy Halloween! 

difrazarse: to dress up 

el disfraz: the costume 

la costumbre: the custom, tradition

el personaje: the character

espeluznante: spooky

el/la licántropo/a: the werewolf

el hombre lobo: the werewolf

el monstruo: the monster

el fantasma: the ghost

el/la loco/a: the madman/madwoman

la bruja: the witch

el diablo: the devil 

espantar: to scare away

asustar: to scare 

el miedo: the fear

dar miedo: to scare/be scary

tener miedo: to be scared

asustarse: to be/get scared

asustado/a: scared/frightened

aterrorizado/a: terrified 

escalofriante: scary

siniestro/a: scary

miedoso/a: scary

¡Qué miedo! How scary!

la oscuridad: the darkness/dark

la calavera: the skull 

el esqueletothe skeleton

la tumba: the grave

el cementerio: the cemetery

la luna llena: the full moon

el gato negro: the black cat

la calabaza: the pumkin

el caramelo: the candy

¡Dulce o truco/travesura/caramelo! Trick or treat!

¡Truco o trato! Trick or treat!

¡Triqui triqui! Trick or treat!

Pedir dulce o truco/travesura: to go trick or treating 

 

We hope you've enjoyed this lesson about Halloween in Spanish, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments. 

 

¡Feliz Halloween! (Happy Halloween!).

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Names of Fruits in Spanish

Let's talk about the various types of fruits in Spanish. Do you know how to say the names of fruits like "apple" or "peach" in Spanish? If you don't know, don't worry! In this lesson, we will find out how to spell and say the names of different fruits in Spanish. Of course, we can't talk about all of the fruits of the world, but we will cover many of the most popular ones with the following list of fruits in Spanish and English. Let's take a look!

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Pome Fruits in Spanish

 

Manzana (apple)

 

Una manzana roja.

A red apple.

Caption 32, Cleer y Lida Picnic

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Pera (pear)

 

La palabra "pera" tiene dos sílabas:

The word "pera" [pear] has two syllables:

Caption 11, Lara enseña Tildes - Part 1

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Stone Fruits in Spanish

 

Albaricoque (apricot)

 

Lo único que, en vez de llevar mermelada de albaricoque,

The only one that, instead of having inside apricot jam,

Caption 29, Horno San Onofre El Chocolate

 Play Caption

 

 

Cereza (cherry)

 

A mí me recuerda... como si fuese una cereza.

It reminds me... as if it were a cherry.

Caption 58, Amaya Cata de vinos

 Play Caption

 

 

Ciruela (plum)

 

 

Durazno (peach)

 

Me volvió a gustar la compota de durazno

I started liking peach baby food again

Caption 4, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 7 - Part 1

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It is important to say that another Spanish term for the word "peach" is melocotón. This term is the prevalent term in Spain:

 

Por ejemplo con melocotón.

For example with peach.

Caption 53, Recetas Tortilla

 Play Caption

 

 

Nectarina (nectarine)

 

 

Citrus Fruits in Spanish

 

Lima (lime)

 

una lima, y se utilizan mucho para una bebida

a lime, and are used a lot for a drink

Caption 21, Otavalo Julia nos muestra las verduras

 Play Caption

 

 

Limón (lemon)

 

con un poco de sal y limón

with a bit of salt and lemon

Caption 14, Ana Carolina Receta para una picada

 Play Caption

 

 

Mandarina (tangerine)

 

Aquí están las mandarinas.

Here are tangerines.

Caption 75, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

 

Naranja (orange)

 

saben a naranja.

taste like orange.

Caption 34, Ariana Cita médica

 Play Caption

 

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Gourd Family Fruits in Spanish

 

Melón (melon)

 

Ahora le vamos a poner un poquito de melón.

Now we're going to add a little melon.

Caption 19, Desayuno Puerto Escondido Frutas

 Play Caption

 

 

Sandía (watermelon)

 

Le vamos a poner... sandía,

We're going to put... watermelon,

Caption 3, Desayuno Puerto Escondido Frutas

 Play Caption

 

 

Berries in Spanish

 

Fresa (strawberry)

 

Y me comí un heladito de fresa porque me daba antojos.

And I ate a strawberry ice cream because I was craving it.

Caption 14, Los médicos explican Consulta con el médico: la diarrea

 Play Caption

 

 

Frambuesa (raspberry)

 

lleva una mermelada natural de frambuesa

it has inside an organic raspberry jam

Caption 30, Horno San Onofre El Chocolate

 Play Caption

 

 

Mora (blackberry)

 

La mora es mi fruta favorita.

The blackberry is my favorite fruit.

Caption 59, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

 

Kiwi (kiwi)

 

 

Uva (grape)

 

Estas son las uvas.

These are grapes.

Caption 22, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

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Tropical and Exotic Fruits in Spanish

 

Banano (banana)

 

Esto es el banano o plátano.

This is the banana or plantain.

Caption 38, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

As you saw in the video clip, this fruit is also known in some regions as the plátano. However, keep in mind that the word plátano can also refer to the plantain:

 

Por último, procedemos a freír el tradicional plátano venezolano,

Lastly, we proceed to fry the traditional Venezuelan plantains,

Caption 75, Recetas de cocina Pabellón criollo

 Play Caption

 

 

Coco (coconut)

 

El agua de coco es muy nutritiva y además te calma mucho la sed.

Coconut water is very nutritious and plus it quenches your thirst a lot.

Caption 84, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

 

Granadilla (passion fruit)

 

Esta es una granadilla.

This is a passion fruit.

Caption 40, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

 

Guanábana (soursop)

 

Se llama guanábana

It's called soursop

Caption 28, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

 

Guayaba (guava)

 

Esto se llama guayaba.

This is called guava.

Caption 54, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

 

Mango (mango)

 

Este es el mango.

This is mango.

Caption 21, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

 

Papaya (papaya)

 

Son unas papayas chiquitas

They are small papayas

Caption 11, Otavalo Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

 

Piña (pineapple)

 

piña en trocitos,

chunks of pineapple,

Caption 13, Cleer y Lida El regreso de Lida

 Play Caption

 

 

In addition to all of the fruits we have mentioned, we would like to add two more fruits that are often not treated as such:

 

Aguacate (avocado)

 

Vamos a conocer un poco sobre la historia del aguacate y sus beneficios.

We're going to find out a bit about the history of the avocado and its benefits.

Caption 3, Melyna El aguacate

 Play Caption

 

 

Tomate (tomato)

 

Por lo tanto, botánicamente hablando, el tomate es una fruta,

Therefore, botanically speaking, the tomato is a fruit

Captions 33-34, Fermín Ensalada de tomate

 Play Caption

 

 

List of fruits in Spanish and English

Now that we have seen how to write and pronounce the names of many important fruits in Spanish, we wanted to leave you with the following quick reference list of fruits in Spanish and English:

 

aguacate (avocado)

albaricoque (apricot)

banano (banana)

cereza (cherry)

ciruela (plum)

coco (coconut)

durazno (peach)

fresa (strawberry)

frambuesa (raspberry)

granadilla (passion fruit)

guanábana (soursop)

guayaba (guava)

kiwi (kiwi)

lima (lime)

limón (lemon)

mandarina (tangerine)

mango (mango)

manzana (apple)

melocotón (peach)

melón (melon)

mora (blackberry)

naranja (orange)

nectarina (nectarine)

papaya (papaya)

pera (pear)

piña (pineapple)

plátano (banana)

sandía (watermelon)

tomate (tomato)

uva (grape)

 

And that's all for this lesson. Before we go, we invite you to answer the following question: ¿Cuál es tu fruta preferida? We hope you've enjoyed this lesson, and we'd love for you to send us your suggestions and comments¡Hasta la próxima!

 

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