Are you confused about the similar-sounding Spanish words hay, ahí, and ay? If that's the case, this brief lesson will help you to know how and when to use each of them. Let's take a look!
The word hay, an impersonal form of the Spanish verb haber, is used to express existence. In other words, hay is the Spanish equivalent of "there is" and "there are." Let's see a couple of clips that include it:
Encima de ella, hay una lámpara negra.
Above her, there's a black lamp.
Caption 18, El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos: Hay y estarPlay Caption
hay cosas muy interesantes,
there are very interesting things,
Caption 61, Aprendiendo con Silvia Campanas - Part 2Play Caption
Ahí, on the other hand, is an adverb meaning "in that place." It is one of the Spanish equivalents of the English word "there." Let's see some examples:
y lo dejaremos ahí hasta que hierva.
and we'll leave it there until it boils.
Caption 19, Ana Carolina Ponche navideñoPlay Caption
y Minos, con una cara que no era la suya, se quedó ahí para siempre.
and Minos, with a face that wasn't his own, stayed there forever.
Captions 43-44, Aprendiendo con Carlos El microrrelato - Part 3Play Caption
Last but not least, the Spanish word ay, which is often translated with the English interjection "oh," is used to express a range of different emotions like the following:
Ay, lentejas al almuerzo, lentejas a la comida... Ay, mamá, -Lentejitas. -¡qué pobreza tan asquerosa! -¡Mm!
Oh, lentils for lunch, lentils for dinner... Oh, Mom, -Lentils. -what revolting poverty! -Hmm!
Captions 17-18, Confidencial: Broma pesada Capítulo 1 - Part 6Play Caption
¡Ay! ¡Estoy horrible!
Oh! I look horrible!Play Caption
Es por ahí. ¡Ahí es! Ay... ¡ay!
It's around there. There it is! Oh... oh!Play Caption
You can also use the word ay to introduce a comment or response about something. Let's look at a couple of examples of this usage:
¿Qué? Ay, Kevin, nosotros no podemos esperarlo durante cuatro años.
What? Oh, Kevin, we can't wait for you for four years.
Captions 2-3, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 13 - Part 7Play Caption
Ay, mijo, hacele caso a tu mamá, ¿sí?
Oh, my son, listen to your mom, OK?
Caption 39, Carlos comenta La sucursal del cielo - Part 4Play Caption
Now that we know how to use these three words, we would like to invite you to remember the following sentence, which some teachers use to teach the difference between the aforementioned terms:
Ahí hay un hombre que dice ay.
There, there's a man who says oh.
That's all for this lesson. Do you now feel confident about using the words hay, ahí, and ay? We hope so, and don't forget to send us your suggestions and comments.
If you are wondering how to say I am in Spanish, there are two possible options to choose from: yo soy and yo estoy. If that surprises you, the first thing you need to know is that the English verb "to be" has two equivalents in Spanish: ser and estar. Let's hear how to say I am in Spanish with these two verbs:
With the verb ser (yo soy):
Bueno, yo soy Amaya
Well, I'm Amaya
Caption 2, Amaya - Donkey DreamlandPlay Caption
With the verb estar (yo estoy):
¿Cómo estás? Yo estoy bien.
How are you? I'm well.
Captions 7-8, Cleer y Lida - Llegando a una nueva ciudadPlay Caption
Now that you are aware of the above, we would like to give you some simple tips to keep in mind when dealing with the soy vs. estoy dilemma.
In Spanish, the verb ser is used to express permanent conditions such as the following:
Yo soy Karen, y en este momento.
I'm Karen, and right now.
Caption 3, Aprendiendo con Karen - El tiempoPlay Caption
Yo soy argentina.
Caption 53, Carlos y Cyndy - Uso del Voseo en ArgentinaPlay Caption
You can also name your place of origin by using the preposition de plus the name of the place you come from:
Yo soy de Guatemala, tengo veintiséis años.
I'm from Guatemala, I'm twenty-six years old.Play Caption
Yo soy la hermana de Ximena.
I'm Ximena's sister.Play Caption
¡Ah! Yo soy profesora de niños.
Oh! I'm a children's teacher.
Caption 20, El Aula Azul - Los profesores de la escuelaPlay Caption
Yo soy un tipo humanitario, te estoy escuchando.
I'm a humanitarian man, I'm listening to you.
Caption 26, Yago - 13 La verdad - Part 4Play Caption
Yo soy negro, y entonces, por ende a mí me gusta la música negra,
I'm black, and so, therefore I like black music,
y la música negra en esos años para mí era Michael Jackson.
and black music in those years for me was Michael Jackson.
Captions 56-58, Leonardo Rodriguez Sirtori - Una vida como pintorPlay Caption
On the other hand, you use the verb estar in Spanish when talking about variables, conditions, or states, such as the following:
Bueno, bueno, yo estoy encantada.
Well, well, I'm delighted.
Es que, no sabéis qué me ha pasado.
It's just that, you don't know what's happened to me.
Captions 8-9, Clase Aula Azul - La segunda condicionalPlay Caption
Ahora bien, yo estoy en el Departamento de Cundinamarca.
Having said that, I am in the Department of Cundinamarca.
Caption 20, Viajando con Carlos - Boyacá - ColombiaPlay Caption
Yo estoy meditando en este momento.
I'm meditating right now.
Caption 40, Dayana - La meditaciónPlay Caption
Quiero que sepas que yo estoy dispuesta a conceder entrevistas.
I want you to know that I'm willing to grant interviews.
Caption 37, Confidencial: Asesino al Volante - Capítulo 3Play Caption
Yo estoy segura que Mariana te va a volver a buscar.
I'm sure that Mariana is going to seek you out again.
Caption 21, Confidencial: Asesino al Volante - Capítulo 5Play Caption
That's all for this lesson. We hope you now feel confident about how to say I am in Spanish, whether with the verb ser or the verb estar. And don't forget to send us your suggestions and comments.
Let's start this lesson off with a quote that refers to a very important and oft-mentioned concept in Spanish:
Veamos el verbo en infinitivo
Let's look at the verb in infinitivePlay Caption
Most simply put, the infinitive is the impersonal, unconjugated, or "to" form of a verb, such as "to swim," "to see," or "to dance" in English. Let's take a closer look at Spanish infinitives and learn many of their potential uses.
Do you know how many types of infinitive verbs there are in Spanish? Let's hear the answer from Yabla's popular teacher Carolina:
Con infinitivo tenemos tres tipos de verbos: verbos que terminan en "ar", como "cantar", verbos que terminan en "er", como "comer" y verbos que terminan en "ir", como "salir".
With infinitive we have three types of verbs: verbs that end in "ar," like "cantar" [to sing], verbs that end in "er," like "comer" [to eat] and verbs that end in "ir," like "salir" [to leave].
Captions 11-14, Lecciones con Carolina El gerundio - Part 1Play Caption
These three categories of infinitive verbs determine the patterns according to which regular verbs are conjugated in all of the various verb tenses in Spanish. Although there are far too many to name, we have provided below ten of the most common Spanish infinitives in each category. The bold print indicates some irregular or stem-changing verbs whose conjugations deviate from the norm.
|-AR Verbs||-ER Verbs||-IR Verbs|
|dar (to give)||aprender (to learn)||abrir (to open)|
|estar (to be)||comer (to eat)||decir (to tell)|
|hablar (to talk)||creer (to believe)||describir (to describe)|
|llamar (to call)||hacer (to make/do)||escribir (to write)|
|llegar (to arrive)||poder (to be able)||pedir (to ask)|
|llevar (to take/carry)||querer (to want)||recibir (to receive)|
|pasar (to spend)||saber (to know)||salir (to leave)|
|quedar (to remain)||ser (to be)||sentir (to feel)|
|tomar (to take)||tener (to have)||venir (to come)|
|trabajar (to work)||vender (to sell)||vivir (to live)|
Now that we understand what an infinitive verb is, let's learn some of the ways in which these non-conjugated verbs can be employed in Spanish.
Many specific conjugated verbs in Spanish can be followed immediately by an infinitive verb. In this case, the infinitive may be translated into English with either the "to" or present participle (-ing) form, depending upon the specific verb and context. Let's see a couple of examples with querer (to want) and evitar (to avoid), which are often followed by infinitive verbs:
Perfecto. Yo quiero viajar a Japón. ¿Sí?
Perfect. I want to travel to Japan. Right?
Caption 77, Clase Aula Azul Pedir deseos - Part 1Play Caption
"Evita beber desde media tarde bebidas estimulantes
"Avoid drinking, starting from mid-afternoon, stimulant drinksPlay Caption
Although the list of these tverbs that are frequently followed by the infinitive is quite long, some additional common ones include buscar (to seek), deber (to have to/must), esperar (to hope), intentar (to try), necesitar (to need), soler (to usually), tener que (to have to), and temer (to fear).
When a verb follows a preposition in Spanish, it should be in the infinitive form. In these cases, Spanish infinitive verbs will be translated with the -ing form of the verb. Let's look at some examples:
Antes de empezar, necesito mis anteojos.
Before starting, I need my glasses.
Caption 19, Natalia de Ecuador Los adverbios de ordenPlay Caption
¡Perdónalo! Lo dijo sin pensar.
Forgive him! He said it without thinking.
Caption 34, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 10 - Part 4Play Caption
There are many common fixed expressions in Spanish that include prepositions and thus require the infinitive, including the near future tense, ir a + infinitive ("to be going to" do something), pensar en + infinitive ("to think about" doing something), dejar de + infinitive ("to stop" or "quit" doing something), tener ganas de + infinitive ("to feel like" doing something), haber que + infinitive (for some action "to be necessary"), estar por + infinitive ("to be about to" do something), and countless more! Let's see a few of these in action:
que tengo ganas de saltar y bailar.
that I feel like jumping and dancing.Play Caption
Había que pagar el precio.
One had to pay the price.
Caption 2, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 5 - Part 5Play Caption
¡Ya deje de hablar de esa niña!
Stop talking about that girl already!
Caption 7, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 6 - Part 2Play Caption
Sometimes, like in English, Spanish infinitive verbs can function like nouns, as in the following excerpt:
Me encanta comprar.
I love shopping.
Caption 40, Ariana Mi SemanaPlay Caption
Note that in such cases, while the article is not required, it may be added for emphasis as follows:
Ahora hasta de hablar,
Now even about talking,
los muchachos les da pena el hablar maya.
the young kids are embarrassed about speaking Maya.
Caption 54, Yabla en Yucatán - Don Salo - Part 1Play Caption
In certain situations, such as explaining how to do something step by step in a manual, cookbook, show, etc., or telling the public on a sign or some other medium what they can and cannot do, Spanish verbs in the infinitive can be construed as commands. Let's take a look:
"No fumar. Esto produce la muerte".
"Don't smoke. This causes death."
Caption 56, Los médicos explican - Las migrañasPlay Caption
An alternative translation on a sign might be: "No smoking."
That's all for today. We hope that this lesson has helped you to understand what infinitive verbs are and many of their possible uses. Can you think of any more? Don't forget to write us with your suggestions and comments.
Do you know how to give advice in Spanish? Today's lesson will give you some advice... on ways to give advice in Spanish!
While the noun for "advice" in Spanish is consejo, in contrast to the English equivalent (an uncountable noun that does not change forms in the plural), the concept of general "advice" in Spanish can be conveyed with either the singular consejo or the plural form, consejos. Let's look at an example of each:
Entonces como consejo sano, ¿verdad? Tú mismo decir...
So as sound advice, right? You yourself saying...
Caption 54, Cuentas claras - Sobreviviendo eneroPlay Caption
¿Qué consejos le darías a un turista que viene a Barcelona?
What advice would you give to a tourist who's coming to Barcelona?Play Caption
That said, when a definite or indefinite article (el, un, unos or los) or quantifying term like a number appears before this noun to refer to specific advice, the word consejo can sometimes be interpreted as a "piece of advice" or "tip," as in the following captions:
Es como un consejo de sentido común de la vida.
It's like a piece of common sense advice in life.
Caption 49, Verónica - "Reprogramación psicocorporal"Play Caption
Pues, hoy les traemos cuatro consejos muy sencillos.
Well, today we bring you four very simple tips.Play Caption
The verb that means "to give advice" in Spanish is aconsejar, which, when addressed to a specific person or people, can also mean "to advise" or "recommend":
Así que les aconsejo que aprendan los primeros diez ordinales
So, I advise you to learn the first ten ordinals,
ya que son muy útiles.
as they are very useful.
Caption 51, Carlos explica - Los Números: Números OrdinalesPlay Caption
les sugiero que visiten el sugestivo Museo del oro.
I suggest that you visit the intriguing Gold Museum.Play Caption
Yo te recomiendo leer mucho en español para mejorar tu nivel.
I recommend you read a lot in Spanish to improve your level.
Captions 64-65, El Aula Azul - Mis libros preferidosPlay Caption
os propongo que vengáis a visitar Genalguacil.
I suggest you come to visit Genalguacil.
Caption 67, Viajando con Fermín - GenalguacilPlay Caption
Now that you are familiar with these terms, here are a few rules of thumb for "advice verbs" like the ones we have just seen:
Since giving advice in Spanish is all about telling someone your opinion about what they "should" (or shouldn't) or "must" (or mustn't) do, let's now examine a few additional "advice verbs" in Spanish that express just that! Keep in mind that while our initial "advice verbs" were conjugated in the first person, the conjugations in this group will correspond to the many Spanish ways to say "you."
The verb deber + the infinitive tells someone what they "must" or "have to" do and is thus useful for giving advice in Spanish.
Ustedes deben permanecer juntos, felices.
You have to stay together, happy.
Caption 44, Confidencial: Asesino al Volante - Capítulo 2Play Caption
Note that when the verb deber is conjugated in the Spanish conditional form, it is the equivalent of the English "should":
Adrián, deberías tomar las pastillas que te di.
Adrian, you should take the pills that I gave you.Play Caption
Since the Spanish verb tener que also means "to have to," it is often used along with the infinitive to give advice in Spanish:
Tienes que saber siempre muy bien cuál es tu límite.
You always have to know very well what your limit is.
Caption 56, Ana Teresa - Yoga y surfPlay Caption
Yet another way to give advice in Spanish is through fixed expressions, whose English translations are the exact equivalents of some English advice-giving phrases with which you are probably familiar. Let's take a look!
"Por qué no aprendes a tocar guitarra?"
"Why don't you learn to play the guitar?"
Caption 67, Alberto Jiménez - CausalidadPlay Caption
Bueno, si yo fuera tú, hablaría con él.
Well, if I were you, I would speak with him.Play Caption
By the way, this utterance falls into the category of the second conditional in Spanish that employs the imperfect subjunctive and conditional tenses to describe what "would" happen if some condition "were" in place.
¡Hay que probarla! No, yo creo que sí.
You have to try it! No, I think so.
Caption 22, Cleer y Lida - El regreso de LidaPlay Caption
Por ahora lo mejor es que descanse.
For now, the best thing is for you to rest.
Caption 18, Confidencial: Asesino al Volante - Capítulo 1Play Caption
Por eso es mejor evitar que la ira tome el control.
That's why it's better to avoid [letting] anger take control.
Caption 42, Aprendiendo con Silvia - Las emocionesPlay Caption
As with our first set of "advice verbs," the verb that follows these impersonal expressions in the last two examples will be either in the infinitive or subjunctive, depending upon whether or not it follows the conjunction que.
And finally, another method for giving advice in Spanish is simply telling someone what to do! For this purpose, we recommend that you learn or review the Spanish imperative mood, which includes both informal commands and formal commands. For now, let's take a look at a pair of examples of familiar commands in Spanish, one negative and one positive, that are used to give advice in Spanish in the following captions:
No tengas miedo de tomar la iniciativa.
Don't be afraid to take the initiative.Play Caption
Evita beber desde media tarde bebidas estimulantes
Avoid drinking, starting from mid-afternoon, stimulant drinks
como el café, el té o bebidas con cola. Mm-hm.
like coffee, tea, or cola drinks. Mm-hmm.
Captions 24-25, Aprendiendo con Silvia - Consejos para dormir mejorPlay Caption
That's all for today. We hope that this lesson has given you a lot of ideas about how to give advice in Spanish. Can you think of any more? Don't forget to write us with your suggestions, comments... or advice!
Do you know the difference between the Spanish verbs ser and estar? Although both mean "to be," the two verbs have different uses in Spanish. In very general terms, ser is used for more permanent characteristics while estar is used for fleeting conditions. If you need to learn or review the uses of these verbs in more detail, we recommend this lesson from the Yabla Spanish archives entitled Ser and Estar: An Easy Trick for Using These Verbs. Then, when you feel prepared, test yourself out with this quiz!
In the following sentences, choose the correct conjugation of ser or estar to fill in the blank.
The following are the answers to all of the questions in this Ser vs. Estar Quiz as well as the translations and grammatical reasons for each.
1. Correct Answer: a. es (ser)
Diego es una persona amable y inteligente.
Diego is a kind and intelligent person.
REASON: The Spanish verb ser is used to describe fixed characteristics of a person, place, or thing.
2. Correct Answer: a. son (ser)
Son las diez y media de la mañana.
It's ten thirty in the morning.
REASON: Always use the verb ser when talking about time. Let's look at another example from Yabla's video library:
Hoy es viernes. Son las siete de la tarde
Today is Friday. It's seven in the evening
Caption 4, Los Reporteros - Crecen los robos en tiendasPlay Caption
3. Correct Answer: b. está (estar)
Mi vecino está en Colombia ahora.
My neighbor is in Colombia now.
REASON: When referring to something or someone's location, choose the verb estar.
4. Correct Answer: a. es (ser)
Mi vecino es de Colombia.
My neighbor is from Colombia.
REASON: Although this example might initially seem similar to the previous one, the word de (from) in this one tips us off that it is referring to origin, which requires the verb ser. Let's see another example:
Eh... Soy argentino y español; mi madre es catalana.
Um... I'm Argentinean and Spanish; my mother is Catalonian.Play Caption
5. Correct Answer: b. estoy (estar)
Yo estoy hablando por teléfono en este momento.
I'm talking on the phone right now.
REASON: The key word to remember this use of the verb estar is action. In fact, the verb estar is an integral part of the Spanish present progressive tense, which consists of the verb estar plus the present participle form (equivalent to -ing verbs in English). This tense describes actions unfolding in the present moment, as in the following example:
"¿Qué estás pensando, Aminata?"
"What are you thinking about, Aminata?"
Caption 58, Aprendiendo con Carlos - El microrrelatoPlay Caption
6. Correct Answer: b. estamos (estar)
Nosotros estamos sentados en el auditorio.
We're seated in the auditorium.
REASON: Employ the verb estar to talk about position.
7. Correct Answer: a. estoy (estar)
Yo estoy muy contenta porque mi amiga me viene a visitar.
I'm very happy because my friend is coming to visit me.
REASON: When talking about emotions, which tend to be fleeting, it's necessary to use the verb estar.
8. Correct Answer: a. sois (ser)
Vosotros sois altos y flacos.
You guys are tall and thin.
REASON: To provide descriptions, utilize the verb ser along with the pertinent adjectives.
9. Correct Answer: b. están
Casi todos los alumnos están enfermos.
Almost all of the students are sick.
REASON: When describing temporary conditions, such as illness, stress, business, etc., pick the veb estar.
10. Correct Answer: a. eres (ser)
Tú eres maestro de inglés.
You're an English teacher.
REASON: Occupations should be spoken about with the verb ser.
11. Correct Answer: a. son (ser)
Francisco y Eliana son primos.
Francisco and Eliana are cousins.
REASON: The verb ser is the correct choice when describing relationships.
12. Correct answer: b. estáis (estar)
¿Cómo estáis vosotros hoy?
How are you today?
REASON: Since how one "is" changes from moment to moment, this common question might evoke answers that include conditions or emotions. It thus employs the verb estar, as do its potential responses:
Yo estoy bien,
Caption 8, Cleer y Lida - Llegando a una nueva ciudadPlay Caption
Estoy muy enfadada.
I am very angry.
Caption 31, El Aula Azul - Estados de ánimoPlay Caption
Do you know how to read una receta (a recipe) in Spanish and/or talk about the various actions one must perform to prepare una comida (a meal)? In order to help you do so, we've taken fifty of the most popular cooking verbs in English, then given you the equivalent Spanish term(s) for each, along with lots of examples from our Yabla Spanish library. Let's get started!
When talking about "adding" in an ingredient, there are various choices! While the first two mean "to add," the second two literally mean "to put" or "place" but are frequently seen in recipes to describe the same action:
Una vez sudado los ingredientes, le colocamos: salsa inglesa,
Once the ingredients are stewed, we add in: Worcestershire sauce,
Captions 50-51, Recetas de cocina Pabellón criolloPlay Caption
El siguiente paso es batir ocho o nueve huevos.
The next step is to beat eight or nine eggs.
Captions 37-38, Clara cocina Una tortilla españolaPlay Caption
And speaking of eggs, you have "to break" or "crack" them, which is described with the Spanish verb romper (to break):
Rompe los huevos contra una superficie plana.
Break the eggs on a flat surface.
Ahora llena una cazuela de agua y luego ponla a hervir.
Now, fill a pot with water, and then, bring it to a boil.
Captions 37-38, El Aula Azul Receta de garbanzosPlay Caption
There are many ways to describe the action of "blending" in Spanish. While the first four options we have listed are more likely to refer to simply "mixing thoroughly," batir and licuar tend to describe more vigorous actions and perhaps even some instrument like a una/a batidor/a (whisk) or licuadora (blender).
Todo esto vamos a llevar a licuar, a dar vueltas
All of this, we're going to blend, to spin around,
Caption 29, Mónica BatidoPlay Caption
y se hornea
and you bake it
Caption 78, Viajando con Fermín Restaurante La Viña - Part 2Play Caption
y vamos a asar dos tiempos la parte de la grasa
and we're going to barbecue the part with the fat two times
Caption 49, Osos en la cocina Carne asadaPlay Caption
Vamos a cortar en pedazos pequeños también la lechuga,
Let's also cut the lettuce into small pieces,
Caption 16, Ana Carolina Receta para una picadaPlay Caption
The verb cubrir might refer to covering something with una tapa (a cover/lid) or something else, like water:
Vamos a cubrirlo y vamos a subirle el fuego.
We're going to cover it, and we're going to increase the heat.
Caption 37, Cocinando con Miguelito Pollo sudado - Part 2Play Caption
La papa es fácil de cocinar,
Potatoes are easy to cook,
Caption 14, Cocinando con Miguelito Pollo sudado - Part 3Play Caption
Luego, pones el papel encerado por encima y dejas que enfríe.
Then, you put the wax paper on top and you let it cool.
Captions 26-27, Manos a la obra Postres de MinecraftPlay Caption
Picamos todo; todo se tiene que picar muy, muy pequeño.
We chop everything; everything has to be chopped very, very small.
Caption 13, Cleer y Lida AjíPlay Caption
The Spanish word dados literally means "dice," as in the dice you play games with. Cortar en dados (literally "to cut in dice") is thus one of the ways to talk about the "dicing" action in Spanish:
Cortarlo en dados y freírlos hasta dorar.
Dice it, and fry them until browned.
Caption 50, Cómetelo Crema de brócoli - Part 5Play Caption
Although the verbs escurrir and colar can both mean "to drain," as in simply getting rid of excess liquid, they can also mean "to strain," as in running something through a colador (colander, sieve, etc.) to separate the solid from the liquid:
Ahora cuela los garbanzos con un colador. Escúrrelos bien.
Now, strain the chickpeas with a strainer. Drain them well.
Captions 40-41, El Aula Azul Receta de garbanzosPlay Caption
En la sartén, un poco de aceite y fríes la mezcla.
In the frying pan, a little bit of oil, and you fry the mixture.
Caption 35, El Aula Azul Adivinanzas de comidas - Part 1Play Caption
la volteamos y hacemos lo mismo y podemos ir volteándola hasta que esté totalmente cocinada.
we flip it, and we do the same thing, and we can keep flipping it until it's totally cooked.
Captions 34-35, Dany Arepas - Part 2Play Caption
Note that these words can also be used as equivalents of the English "to crush."
y después de eso procederemos a molerla.
and after that we will proceed to grind it.
Caption 51, Una Historia de Café La TostiónPlay Caption
¿Qué, sos un queso pa' que te ralle?
What, are you some cheese for me to grate?
Caption 70, Muñeca Brava 39 Verdades - Part 10Play Caption
You might have noticed that the terms for "to grill" and "to barbecue" in Spanish are similar, and people often confuse these actions ("barbecuing" tends to describe cooking something for longer over a lower heat, and perhaps on an actual "barbecue"). Most of the time, context should let you know which meaning is intended.
Ahora vamos a asar las arepas.
Now we are going to grill the arepas.
Caption 31, Recetas de cocina Arepas colombianasPlay Caption
Lo ponemos en la estufa... y lo vamos a calentar a un fuego medio o bajo.
We put it on the stove... and we're going to heat it over medium or low heat.
Caption 18, Cocinando con Miguelito Pollo sudado - Part 1Play Caption
Entonces, tenemos que amasarla bien.
Then, we have to knead it well.
Caption 66, Recetas de cocina CarimañolasPlay Caption
es que, si cada persona en el cuarto enciende un fósforo al mismo tiempo,
is that, if every person in the room lights a match at the same time,
Captions 52-53, Eljuri Hablamos Con La Artista Sobre Su Nuevo ÁlbumPlay Caption
Similarly, the verb encender can also mean "to turn on."
¿Y medís la grasa que tiene,
And you measure the fat that it has,
Caption 17, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 14Play Caption
eh, que sea grande y espacioso para poder mezclar.
um, which is large and spacious to be able to mix.
Caption 25, Dany Arepas - Part 1Play Caption
Ahora voy a cocinar en microondas las palomitas.
Now, I'm going to microwave the popcorn.
"Haz puré con un aplastador de papas" means "Mash with a potato masher." Now, let's look at a clip that describes the result of this action!
Ella va a hacer un puré de papa y yo voy a hacer la pechuga.
She is going to make some mashed potatoes, and I am going to make the chicken breast.
Caption 27, Misión Chef 2 - Pruebas - Part 7Play Caption
Derrítalo en agua caliente. Eh... derretirlo... eh...
Melt it in hot water. Um... melt it... um...
Captions 29-30, Extr@: Extra en español Ep. 5: Ha nacido una estrella - Part 7Play Caption
Lo vamos a picar como en una crema.
We're going to mince it like in a cream.
Caption 77, Cómetelo Crema de brócoli - Part 2Play Caption
Lo dejamos marinar una hora en el refrigerador
We let it marinate for one hour in the refrigerator
Caption 9, Osos en la cocina Pollo asiáticoPlay Caption
El primer paso es pelar las patatas,
The first step is to peel the potatoes,
Caption 23, Clara cocina Una tortilla españolaPlay Caption
y vierte un poco de aceite.
and pour in a bit of oil.
Caption 55, El Aula Azul Receta de garbanzosPlay Caption
Take note that in addition to "grill" and "barbecue," the Spanish verb asar can also mean "to roast," or "cook in an oven or open fire." When talking about "roasting" coffee beans, nuts, or seeds, however, the verb tostar (literally "to toast") is commonly employed to describe the "roasting" action:
El café se tuesta entre doscientos y doscientos cincuenta grados centígrados.
Coffee is roasted at between two hundred and two hundred fifty degrees centigrade.
Caption 7, Una Historia de Café La TostiónPlay Caption
Refrigera la torta por dos horas antes de servir.
Refrigerate cake for two hours prior to serving.
The verb estirar, which usually means "to stretch," can also refer to "rolling out" dough, for example, with a rolling pin:
el rulero, empezar a estirar la empanada.
the rolling pin, start to roll out the empanada.Play Caption
Although enjuagar is the most common verb meaning "to rinse," sometimes the verb desinfectar can be used when referring to "rinsing" food items.
las frutas, lo... las lavamos, las desinfectamos,
the fruit, we... we wash it, we rinse it,
Caption 15, Otavalo Mali TeaPlay Caption
Have you ever heard of "false friends," or false cognates in Spanish? While remover sounds like "to remove" and revolver resembles "to revolve," both of these verbs mean "to stir" in Spanish (the latter making a bit more sense!). Meanwhile, the false friend estirar, which looks and sounds more like "to stir," means "to stretch" (or "roll out," as we learned earlier).
Recordad: remover bien la mezcla.
Remember: Stir the mixture well.
Caption 65, El Aula Azul Receta de natillasPlay Caption
In addition to "to stir," the Spanish verb revolver can also mean "to scramble."
Revuelve los huevos en una sartén de acero inoxidable.
Scramble the eggs in a stainless steel frying pan.
Espolvorea con azúcar y canela.
Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon.
Exprimimos medio limón por cada trozo de carne.
We squeeze half a lemon for each piece of meat.
Caption 36, Osos en la cocina Carne asadaPlay Caption
con queso y mantequilla que puedes untar sobre el pan.
with cheese and butter that you can spread on the bread.
Captions 40-41, Natalia de Ecuador Alimentos para el desayunoPlay Caption
Al vapor, el brócoli conserva su textura, su sabor y sus propiedades.
Steamed, broccoli keeps its texture, its flavor, and its properties.
Captions 58-59, Soledad Ensaladilla de brócoliPlay Caption
This Spanish verb literally means "to boil at low heat," which is what "simmering" refers to:
Hierve el guiso a fuego lento por tres a cuatro horas.
Simmer the stew for three to four hours.
Picamos en rebanadas.
We slice [them].
Caption 15, Recetas de cocina Ensalada de pepinoPlay Caption
le echo... lo salteo con aceite y le echo una guindilla.
I put it in... I sauté it with oil and I add a chili pepper to it.
Caption 27, Cómetelo Crema de brócoli - Part 3Play Caption
De un litro, hay que cogerle y cernirle
From one liter, you have to take it and sift it,
Caption 102, Comunidad Tsáchila Ayahuasca y plantas curativasPlay Caption
Notice that the Spanish words for "tossing" a salad are not the literal translations for the word "toss" as in "throw," but rather mean "to mix" (mezclar) and "to stir" (revolver, remover).
Verter el aderezo en la ensalada y revolver poco antes de servir.
Pour the dressing over the salad and toss just before serving.
La uso para tostar el pan del desayuno por las mañanas.
I use it to toast the breakfast bread in the morning.
Caption 29, Aprendiendo con Zulbany Piensa rápidoPlay Caption
Para cada jarra de café debo pesar siempre la misma cantidad
For each mug of coffee I must always weigh out the same amount,
Captions 53-54, Una Historia de Café La TostiónPlay Caption
The previously discussed Spanish verb batir can also be used for the action of "whisking." To be more specific, you might also mention the name of the "whisk" instrument:
Usando una batidora de varillas, bate la mezcla hasta que esté uniforme.
Using a wire whisk, blend mixture until it is uniform.
A much simpler translation with the same meaning would be simply: "Whisk mixture until uniform."
Mientras lavamos el tomate y vamos preparando la ensalada,
While we wash the tomato and we're making the salad,
Caption 28, Fermín Ensalada de tomatePlay Caption
We hope that this lesson on the top Spanish verbs for cooking has brought to light a lot of new cooking vocabulary as well as making you aware of a multitude of Yabla videos you might not have seen with a ton of scrumptious recipes to try! And if you do, we would love for you to write us with your experiences and comments!
Have you heard of the "no fault se" construction in Spanish? Do you know the "no fault se" formula and how to use it? Do you know which verbs are most commonly seen with the "no fault se"? Today's lesson will touch upon all of these topics!
If you lose a lot of things, like many of us, you'll be happy to hear that, unlike English, the Spanish language doesn't think it's our fault! It tends to describe certain things happening "to us" rather than us carrying them out. For example, instead of saying Yo perdí el libro (I lost the book), it would be more common for a native Spanish speaker to say, Se me perdió el libro (literally "The book got lost to me"). And, instead of saying directly "I dropped the eggs," you might say Se me cayeron los huevos, which literally translates to something like "The eggs fell from me."
Now that we have some idea about the "no fault se" construction, which might also be referred to as the "involuntary se," let's learn the necessary elements to create sentences that employ it:
1. The pronoun se.
2. An indirect object pronoun (me, te, le, nos, os, or le) that indicates "to whom" the action "is happening" (or, depending on perception, who "did" it!).
3. A verb in the third person that is conjugated in either singular or plural in accordance with the subject (as in passive constructions).
4. Optional: a (to) plus a prepositional pronoun (mí (me), ti (you), él (him), ella (her), usted (formal "you"), nosotros/as (we), vosotros/as (plural "you"), or ustedes (formal plural "you")), or a direct object to emphasize "the victim" of the action (see verbs like gustar).
Let's take a look at a couple of examples:
y se le cayó el trozo de carne.
and he dropped the piece of meat.
Caption 13, Club de las ideas La zorra y el cuervoPlay Caption
In terms of our formula, we have 1. the pronoun se 2. the indirect object pronoun le to indicate that it happened "to him" (since le corresponds to the subject pronoun él (him)), and 3. the verb caer (to fall) conjugated in third person singular because la carne (the meat) is singular. Optionally, a él could have been added to emphasize the action's "victim" (a él se le cayó...). Let's see another example:
El martes se me perdieron las llaves de casa,
On Tuesday, my house keys got lost,Play Caption
Here, we see: 1. the pronoun se 2. the indirect object pronoun me to point towards the first person, yo (I), and 3. the verb perder (to lose) conjugated in third person plural to agree with the plural las llaves (the keys). A mí could be an optional addition before "se me perdieron..."
In terms of the translation of the examples above, while the "no fault se" construction with caer is most often translated as "to drop," our second example might also have been communicated with "I lost my house keys" since this is the more common way of talking about losing things in English— although "got lost" might arguably convey this idea of "no fault" more effectively. That said, because there is not always an equivalent of every "no fault" construction in English, their translations may vary, and we will thus attempt to give you various English options for the following examples.
Now, let's examine some additional verbs that commonly appear in the "no fault se" construction.
Although a Spanish speaker could potentially say "Me olvidé" (I forgot), the idea of "forgetting" is more commonly expressed with the "no fault se" construction.
Por si se te olvidó, ¡soy tu madre! No, no se me olvidó. -Y si salí...
In case you forgot, I'm your mother! No, I didn't forget. -And if I went out...
Captions 41-42, Muñeca Brava 8 Trampas - Part 12Play Caption
Or, to emphasize this "involuntary" aspect, you might choose the alternative translations: "In case it slipped your mind/It didn't slip my mind."
While the verb ocurrir means "to happen," when used in the "no fault se" construction, common translations include both "to occur to" and "to think of":
No sé, se me ocurre que igual nos podríamos encontrar en otros sitios.
I don't know, it occurs to me that we could also meet in other places.
Captions 21-22, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 3 - Part 9Play Caption
Se me ocurrió una gran idea.
I thought of a great idea.
Caption 28, Guillermina y Candelario El paseo sobre el marPlay Caption
Whereas in English, one might confess that he or she "ran out of money," the money literally runs out on the person in Spanish!
Porque se me acabó el dinero y...
Because I ran out of money, and...Play Caption
Of course, one might also translate this construction as "my money run out."
Similarly, "I burned the cake" is most often expressed with the "no fault se" construction, as translated quite literally in the following example:
¡Dejé el pastel mucho tiempo en el horno y se me quemó!
I left the cake in the oven for too long and it burned on me!Play Caption
To talk about the idea of "leaving something behind" in the sense of "forgetting it" somewhere, native Spanish speakers frequently employ the "involuntary se" construction with the verb quedar:
Se te quedó esto. -Espera.
You left this behind. -Wait.
Caption 55, Salvando el planeta Palabra Llegada - Part 6Play Caption
These are just some of the verbs that are commonly utilized in the "no fault se" in Spanish. To see many more, check out El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos: El pronombre se as well as Clase Aula Azul- Se involuntario, which explores this topic in depth... and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
In caption 8 of his electric press kit, Spanish artist Javier García uses the common Spanish verb dejar with the meaning "to leave":
Tú me quieres dejar, y yo no quiero sufrir
You want to leave me, and I don't want to suffer
Caption 8, Javier García - EPKPlay Caption
However, twelve captions later, we find the imperative form of the very same verb being sung to a different tune:
Deja de correr, tranquila
Stop running, take it easy
Caption 20, Javier García - EPKPlay Caption
How can the same verb mean such different things? Why, context, of course! Let's explore the many meanings and uses of the Spanish verb dejar.
One of the most common translations for the Spanish verb dejar is "to leave." However, just like the English verb "to leave," the Spanish verb dejar can describe many different types of "leaving." Let's take a look at several (ten, to be exact!) of the English meanings of the verb "to leave" and learn how to express these same ideas with dejar in Spanish.
The verb dejar in Spanish can mean "to abandon" or "give up" something. Let's take a look:
Si yo dejé mi departamento... -Ni se te ocurra.
If I left my apartment... -Don't even think about it.
Caption 14, Muñeca Brava 45 El secreto - Part 6Play Caption
Another meaning of the Spanish verb dejar is "to leave" something or someone in a particular state, for example, in the sentence La pelicula me dejó sin palabras (The movie left me speechless). Let's see another example:
Esta rumba, yo te digo, que te deja por el suelo
This rumba, I'm telling you, leaves you on the floor
Captions 1-2, Javier García - La RumbaPlay Caption
The verb dejar can additionally mean "to leave" in the sense of putting or placing something somewhere:
He dejado la bolsa enfrente a un niño.
I have left the bag in front of a little boy.
Caption 52, María Marí Su pasión por su arte - Part 1Play Caption
However, since we may not have "put" or "placed" that something in that particular place on purpose, the Spanish verb dejar is often used to say we "forgot" something:
¿Dónde dejé mi billetera? -No se preocupe.
Where did I leave my wallet? -Don't worry about it.Play Caption
In English, we can "leave something" in a particular state or location, whether permanently or temporarily, and the Spanish verb dejar expresses this same idea. You might say, Yo voy a dejar mi pelo así (I'm going to leave my hair like this) or the following, both of which could be replaced with "to allow to remain":
Deja los garbanzos en el agua hirviendo aproximadamente media hora.
Leave the chickpeas in the boiling water for approximately half an hour.
Captions 65-66, El Aula Azul Receta de garbanzosPlay Caption
Dejar in Spanish can also mean to "leave" someone or something somewhere in the sense of "dropping off" that person or thing:
¿Pero si me acabas de dejar, no?
But you just dropped me off, right?Play Caption
Yet another meaning of the verb dejar in Spanish is "to leave" as in "bequeathing" someone to someone.
tú tenías como algún tipo de auxilio, ¿un... un tipo de pensión que tus padres te dejaron?
you had like some kind of help, a... a kind of pension that your parents left you?
Captions 40-41, Tu Voz Estéreo Laura - Part 4Play Caption
On its own or within idioms, the verb dejar in Spanish can mean "to leave alone." Let's start with an example with just the verb dejar:
Déjelo, ¿o le gustaría que le hiciera lo mismo?
Leave him alone, or would you like me to do the same thing to you?
Caption 48, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 1 - Part 2Play Caption
A couple of idioms that also mean to "leave alone" are dejar en paz (literally "leave in peace") or the more literal dejar solo. Let's hear them in context:
¿Por qué no me dejás en paz?
Why don't you leave me alone?
Caption 58, Muñeca Brava 8 Trampas - Part 12Play Caption
Dejame solo, tía. Por favor.
Leave me alone, Auntie. Please.
Caption 24, Muñeca Brava 2 Venganza - Part 5Play Caption
The Spanish verb dejar can also mean "to leave" in the sense of "breaking up with," or "walking out on" someone. Let's take a look:
¿Qué pasa si la dejo a Andrea?
What if I leave Andrea?
Caption 104, Muñeca Brava 47 Esperanzas - Part 10Play Caption
And finally (in this section!), you might notice that on the phone, Spanish speakers often say, "Bueno, te dejo" or something similar, which corresponds to the English, "I'll let you go." You might also notice this in many videos from our Yabla Spanish library:
de momento aquí os dejo.
for now, I'll leave you here.
Caption 54, Amaya La historia de LukasPlay Caption
In addition to the plethora of nuanced ways in which the Spanish verb dejar can be used to talk about "leaving," it can also have several additional translations. Let's explore some!
If you wish to give someone permission to do something, you might use the Spanish verb dejar, which can also mean "to let," "permit" or "allow."
Siempre me dejaban hacer lo que quise.
They always allowed me to do whatever I wanted.
Caption 8, Biografía Natalia Oreiro - Part 3Play Caption
Esperá, no me dejaste terminar.
Wait, you didn't let me finish.
Caption 37, Muñeca Brava 46 Recuperación - Part 7Play Caption
Dejar can additionally describe ceasing to do something temporarily or permanently, and the formula for using it in this context is dejar + de + infinitive. This gives us the equivalent of "stopping" or "quitting" an action depicted by the gerund, or "-ing," form in English. Let's take a look.
Pues que este señor dejó de trabajar.
Well, this gentleman stopped working.
Caption 17, Málaga Lourdes y la espartería en Mijas PuebloPlay Caption
Y tú, deja de sonreír, ¡que también es culpa tuya!
And you, quit smiling because it's your fault too!Play Caption
Perhaps a lesser-known meaning of the verb dejar in Spanish is "to lend":
Lola, ¿puedes dejarme algo de ropa?
Lola, can you lend me some clothes?Play Caption
And finally, the verb dejar in Spanish can also mean "to drop" as in a topic, as in the expression "Déjalo" (Drop it). This is sort of an intersection of dejar meaning "to stop" (talking about something) and "to leave" since "Dejémoslo ahí," for example, can sometimes be translated as "Let's leave it there," as in the following caption:
Let's leave it there.
Caption 62, Muñeca Brava 45 El secreto - Part 5Play Caption
Let's conclude our lesson on the many uses of the Spanish verb dejar by mentioning its reflexive form, dejarse. The reflexive verb dejarse is used in two main ways.
This not-very-flattering use of the Spanish verb dejar is used to describe someone who neglects their health or appearance.
Juan realmente se dejó después de casarse y ha subido más de cincuenta libras.
Juan really let himself go after getting married and has gained more than fifty pounds.
The reflexive verb dejarse + infinitive is used to describe something one "allows him or herself" to experience, which could be negative or positive and is usually translated with "to be" or "to get" plus an English verb in the past participle (typically ending in -ed or -en). Let's see a couple of examples:
no se dejó influenciar por intereses personales, ni por presiones mediáticas en las que se ha visto envuelta últimamente.
she didn't allow herself to be influenced by personal interests or the media pressure she's been embroiled in lately.
Captions 7-8, Confidencial: Asesino al Volante Capítulo 3 - Part 4Play Caption
Mm... Déjate llevar al paraíso.
Mm... Let yourself get carried away to paradise.Play Caption
With all of that said, te dejamos por hoy (we'll leave you/say goodbye for today). We hope that this lesson te haya dejado (has left you) with a better understanding of the many meanings of the Spanish verb dejar, and for further explanation and examples, be sure to check out the videos Significados del verbo dejar (Meanings of the Verb Dejar)- Part 1 and Significados del verbo dejar- Part 2. And don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
Do you "know" the difference between the Spanish verbs saber and conocer? Although they both mean "to know" in Spanish, there are subtle differences between them. Let's explore them!
The Spanish verb saber describes "knowing" something concrete, such as a fact, information, or skill. Let's take a look at each of these subcategories with examples from our Yabla Spanish library.
The verb saber in Spanish is used to talk about "knowing" (or not knowing!) specific facts:
¿Ya sabes que el pez globo es venenoso?
Do you know that the puffer fish is poisonous?
Caption 33, Guillermina y Candelario El paseo sobre el marPlay Caption
No sabía que estaba embarazada.
I didn't know she was pregnant.Play Caption
Note that the Spanish verb saber falls into the category of Spanish verbs that change meaning in the preterite tense, as its meaning changes in the preterite from "to know" to "to find out."
Así supe que su nombre era Lucía,
That's how I found out that her name was Lucía,
Caption 30, Luis Guitarra Historia de Lucía - Part 1Play Caption
The Spanish verb saber can also describe having knowledge of particular information:
¿Y sabes a qué hora abren?
And do you know what time they open?Play Caption
¿Eh? Estoy seguro que ella sabe dónde está el Gringo.
Right? I am sure that she knows where the Gringo is.
Caption 44, Yago 3 La foto - Part 6Play Caption
When talking about skills, the formula saber + infinitive is used to say that someone "knows how" to do something. Let's take a look.
Pues yo quería mostrarle que también sé hacer muchas cosas.
Well, I wanted to show her that I know how to do a lot of things too.Play Caption
En la vida hay que saber relajarse,
In life, you need to know how to relax,
Caption 44, Ana Teresa 5 principios del yogaPlay Caption
The Spanish verb conocer, on the other hand, refers to being familiar with or acquainted with something, which could be a person, place, or thing. Let's see some examples from each category.
The Spanish verb conocer is employed to talk about "knowing" people, in the sense of being acquainted with them.
Por ejemplo: Conozco a María.
For example: I know María.
Caption 11, Lecciones con Carolina Saber y conocerPlay Caption
Y cuando pasó el tiempo conocí a Edgar, ¿no? Nos conocimos en la escuela.
And as time went by I met Edgar, right? We met at school.
Caption 14, Belanova Entrevista - Part 2Play Caption
Notice that, in both examples above, the Spanish pronoun a appears after the verb conocer and before the person. This so-called personal a is necessary when a person is the object of a Spanish sentence. Additionally, we see that the meaning of the verb conocer also changes meaning in the preterite from "to know" to "to meet."
Although it is sometimes translated as "to know," when used in reference to places, the Spanish verb conocer usually denotes having actually been somewhere rather than just awareness of its existence. That said, let's take a look at some alternative translations:
¿Conoces las Islas Canarias?
Have you been to the Canary Islands?
Caption 89, Clase Aula Azul El verbo gustar - Part 5Play Caption
Conocí las islas Barú de... de Colombia
I visited the Barú Islands in... in ColombiaPlay Caption
The verb conocer in Spanish can also refer to familiarity with objects and might thus be translated with either "to know" or "to be familiar with":
Realmente son frases que vuestros compañeros no conocen, entonces es una información nueva para ellos.
They really are sentences that your classmates don't know, so it's new information for them.
Captions 45-46, Clase Aula Azul Información con subjuntivo e indicativo - Part 4Play Caption
¡Ah! Pues yo no conocía esta tablet.
Oh! Well, I wasn't familiar with this tablet.
Caption 74, El Aula Azul Ester y PaulaPlay Caption
Having seen these parameters and examples, we hope you now "know" the difference between saber and conocer in Spanish! To further explore this topic, check out Lecciones con Carolina: Saber y conocer. And, don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
The Royal Spanish Academy's Dictionary of the Spanish Language lists 25 different meanings for the Spanish verb pegar, whose English translations range from "to stick" to "to hit"! Although we won't cover all of them, today's lesson will touch on many of the most common ones, backed by lots of examples from the Yabla Spanish video library. Are you ready?!
The Spanish verb pegar is often used to describe attaching one thing to another. While this could involve some substance like glue or paste, in other cases, it might simply entail "sticking" one thing onto another via another means, like sewing (as in the example pegar un bóton, or "sew on a button"). Let's take a look at a couple more examples:
Después pegamos los ojos que le hicimos a nuestro personaje.
Afterwards we glue the eyes that we made for him onto our character.Play Caption
Repartía volantes, pegaba carteles...
I used to give out pamphlets, put up posters...
Caption 42, Felipe Calderón Publicidad - Part 1Play Caption
Similarly, the reflexive form of pegar, pegarse, is used to talk about things that "stick to" other things and might even be translated as "to burn" or "stick to the pan" in the context of cooking.
Y queremos que la harina no esté muy seca y no muy mojada para que no se pegue a las manos
And, we want for the flour to not be very dry and not very moist so that it doesn't stick to one's hands
Captions 43-44, Dany Arepas - Part 1Play Caption
Bueno, entonces vemos que esto se está empezando a pegar al fondo.
Well, so we see that this is starting to stick to the bottom.Play Caption
In contrast to the former meanings, the Spanish verb pegar can also mean to "hit" someone, as in physically striking them:
Ella era muy amorosa, ella nunca... nunca me pegó, ni una palmada ni nada.
She was very loving. She never... never hit me, not a spank or anything.
Caption 2, La Sub30 Familias - Part 11Play Caption
Hermanito, ¿te pegaste?
Little brother, did you get hurt?Play Caption
The verb pegar often appears with specific nouns like tiro (shot), bofetón (slap), patada (kick), etc., to talk about specific types of "striking." For example, you might hear that a soccer player le pegó una patada fuerte a la pelota ("gave the ball a good kick") or that someone le pegó un bofetón ("slapped him" or "gave him a slap"). Let's see an example with un tiro:
Calme ese perro o le pego un tiro.
Calm down that dog or I'll shoot him.
Caption 40, Tu Voz Estéreo Laura - Part 6Play Caption
The verb pegar in Spanish might be employed to talk about sun, light, or even wind that falls upon (or is particularly frequent in) a particular surface or area:
Porque aquí esta zona, aquí pega mucho viento.
Because this area here, it's very windy here.
Caption 21, Playa Adícora Francisco - Part 3Play Caption
The Spanish verb pegar can additionally be utilized to talk about either "giving," in the sense of "transmitting" an illness or habit to someone, or "picking" it "up." Let's look at an example where pegar means "to give":
Traté de evitarlo, pero al final mi novio me ha pegado el COVID.
I tried to avoid it, but in the end, my boyfriend gave me COVID.
Now, let's see an example of the Spanish verb pegar within a no fault se construction to talk about something one "got."
Parece que se te pegó todo lo malo de ese títere de peluche, ¿no?
It seems like everything bad about that stuffed puppet rubbed off on you, right?
Caption 20, La Familia Cheveroni Capítulo 1 - Part 2Play Caption
An alternative translation for this sentence might be: "It seems like you picked up everything bad about that stuffed puppet, right?"
The verb pegar in Spanish can entail "pulling" something "up" to something else or "moving (it) closer." For example, you might say: "Pegué la cama a la pared" (I pulled up the bed up to the wall). Let's see one more example:
Puedes pegar un poco el brazo hacia ti.
You can bring your arm a bit closer to you.Play Caption
Antiguamente el mar pegaba a la muralla.
Previously, the sea touched the wall.Play Caption
Esa camisa no pega con ese pantalón.
That shirt doesn't match those pants.
In addition to its more traditional uses, the verb pegar can be found in lots of idiomatic expressions and may be used differently in different countries and regions. In the Dominican Republic, for example, it is common to use the Spanish verb pegar to talk about actions that began suddenly, as in the case of "Pegó a correr" (He took off running). In other regions, you might hear expressions like "Me pegó la depresión" (I got depressed) to give us a sense that the speaker was "stricken" by depression, while "Me pegué una siesta" is another way to say "I took a nap."
While the less textbook meanings of the verb pegar can seem endless, here are a smattering of examples whose meanings feel like logical extensions of some of the more traditional definitions we covered:
Era lo que yo había aprendido y entonces, eh, me pegué con ellos
It was what I had learned and so, um, I hooked up with them
Captions 28-29, Willy Entrevista - Part 2Play Caption
hoy le pego a ese duraznito de Amalia Durango, ¿oyó?
today I'll hit it with that peach Amalia Durango, you hear?Play Caption
Esto te pega a ti. ¿A ti te gusta?
This one gets your attention. You like it?
Caption 87, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 14Play Caption
Yo sólo quiero pegar en la radio
I just want to catch on on the radio
Caption 1, Bacilos Mi Primer MillónPlay Caption
Although these examples of the many meanings of the Spanish verb pegar are by no means exhaustive, we hope that this lesson has given you insight into many of them and their uses in different contexts. Let us know with your suggestions and comments if you can think of any more!
The Spanish verb echar can be used in many different ways and appears in a host of different Spanish idiomatic expressions. Let's explore the many meanings and uses of the Spanish verb echar.
While the first definition of echar in dictionaries is typically "to throw," it can refer to any literal or figurative movement from one point to another and can thus be translated in many fashions depending upon the context. Let's take a look at several of its most common meanings with examples from our Yabla Spanish library.
Although the Spanish verb echar can literally mean "to throw," "toss," or "hurl" something, it is probably more common to hear verbs like tirar, lanzar, or arrojar used with this meaning. That said, let's take a look at an example where echar means to physically throw something:
y le echas harina y se lo pones en el pelo y... ¡Chwak!
and you throw flour on her and you put it in her hair and... Bam!
Caption 17, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 1Play Caption
The Spanish verb echar can also be used in the way we use the verbs "to throw" something "out" or "away," whether literally or figuratively. Let's look at an example of each:
Por lo general, tenemos cuatro contenedores: el azul, donde echamos el papel, cartón, revistas,
Generally, we have four trash bins: the blue one, where we throw away paper, cardboard, magazines,
Captions 3-4, Rosa ReciclarPlay Caption
Todo estaba tranquilo y lo echaste a la basura
Everything was calm and you threw it in the garbage
Caption 3, Sondulo Que te vaya malPlay Caption
The verb echar in Spanish often appears in recipes and other contexts when talking about "adding" or "putting in" some ingredient, etc. Let's take a look:
Le voy a echar un poco de nata...
I'm going to add a bit of cream to it...
Caption 47, Cómetelo Crema de brócoli - Part 9Play Caption
Bueno, también le podemos echar diferentes clases de condimentos.
Well, we can also put in different kinds of seasoning.
Caption 24, Cocinando con Miguelito Pollo sudado - Part 2Play Caption
Along these same lines, echar can also be used to mean to pour something into something else:
Solo falta echarla en el molde
We just need to pour it into the mold
Caption 38, Cleer y Lía El día de la madrePlay Caption
The verb echar in Spanish may also refer to getting rid of someone in the sense of throwing or kicking them out, temporarily or permanently:
No sé qué hace este señor todavía acá, lo eché esta misma tarde.
I don't know what this gentleman is still doing here. I threw him out this very afternoon.
Caption 33, Muñeca Brava 3 Nueva Casa - Part 4Play Caption
Se mueren por saber por qué echó a la chirusa.
They're dying to know why she fired the vulgar girl.
Caption 42, Carlos y Cyndy Comentario sobre Muñeca BravaPlay Caption
And speaking of "expelling" and "fire," the verb echar in Spanish can also mean to "expel," "emit," "give off," or "spew" fire or smoke, for example:
Pero eso no lo iba a entender un dragón al que solo le interesaba rugir y echar fuego por la boca.
But a dragon who was only interested in roaring and spewing fire from his mouth wasn't going to get it.
Caption 49, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 1 - Part 7Play Caption
And, to conclude with our more standard uses of the Spanish verb echar, the formula echar + infinitive means "to start" [doing something]:
y ven la batidora, echan a correr.
and they see the blender, they start to run.
Caption 31, Cómetelo Crema de brócoli - Part 8Play Caption
This meaning might also be seen with the reflexive version of the verb, echarse.
Pero ya las lágrimas se echaban a correr
But the tears were starting to fall
Caption 8, Jeremías Uno y uno igual a tresPlay Caption
Let's take a look at some additional uses of the reflexive verb echarse.
The reflexive verb echarse can be used to talk about "lying down" as in Me voy a echar en la cama (I'm going to lie down in bed) or generally "throwing oneself" or "getting down":
Los hombres que cuando se les dicen de echarse al suelo es que no quieren ninguno.
When men are told to get down on the ground, the thing is that no one wants to.
Captions 52-53, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 8Play Caption
The reflexive verb echarse can additionally have the connotation of moving from one place to another, as in the first example, and is therefore heard often in songs, as in the second, with various translations to tell people how they should move.
donde el pueblo se echa a la calle junto a miles de visitantes
where the town goes out onto the street along with thousands of visitors
Caption 57, Viajando con Fermín Frigiliana, MálagaPlay Caption
Échate pa' un lado
Caption 8, Javier García EPK - Part 2Play Caption
Now, let's look at several Spanish idioms that involve the Spanish verbs echar or echarse with examples in context:
¡Y me echó la culpa de todo!
And she blamed everything on me!Play Caption
El marido se echó a reír al ver la cara de sorpresa de su esposa.
The husband burst out laughing when he saw his wife's surprised face.
Caption 32, Cleer El espejo de MatsuyamaPlay Caption
Después de haberse marchado todos, estaba sola en casa y se echó a llorar.
After everyone had left, she was alone in the house and burst out crying.
Captions 29-30, Cuentos de hadas Cenicienta - Part 1Play Caption
Después de comer, solemos echar la siesta
After eating, we usually take a nap
Caption 20, El Aula Azul Actividades DiariasPlay Caption
Ahora cerramos la puerta, echamos la llave
Now we close the door, we lock it,Play Caption
De España echo mucho de menos el clima,
From Spain, I really miss the weather,
Caption 39, Álvaro Arquitecto Español en LondresPlay Caption
para que nos eche una mano y les vamos a dar
so that he can lend us a hand and we are going to give them
Caption 50, Club de las ideas BioparcPlay Caption
De acuerdo, deje que eche un vistazo.
OK, let me take a look.
Caption 63, Negocios Empezar en un nuevo trabajo - Part 2Play Caption
Así es y pues aquí mira, trabajando, echándole ganas y...
It's so, and well, [we] are here, [you] see, working, giving it my all and...Play Caption
No puedo, negrita, ya eché a perder como diez laburo'.
I can't, honey. I already messed up like ten jobs.
Caption 3, Muñeca Brava 3 Nueva Casa - Part 5Play Caption
¡Callate, Rufino! No eches más leña al fuego, ¿querés?
Shut up, Rufino! Don't put more wood into the fire [don't add fuel to the fire], will you?
Caption 23, Yago 8 Descubrimiento - Part 2Play Caption
Todavía no ha jugado el partido de fútbol y ya está "echando las campanas al vuelo",
He hasn't played the soccer match yet, and he's already "throwing the bells in the air,"
Captions 45-46, Aprendiendo con Silvia Campanas - Part 2Play Caption
Although the literal meaning is totally different, this Spanish expression is comparable to the English idiom about "counting one's chickens before they are hatched." For more such examples, check out this lesson on Spanish idioms and their (very different) English equivalents.
As there are so many standard and idiomatic ways to use the Spanish verb echar that it would be impossible to name them all, we've provided just a smattering! Don't hesitate to write to us with any more you come across, or with any ideas for future lessons. ¡Hasta la próxima!
In English, we use the verb "to meet" and the nouns "meet" and "meeting" in a plethora of nuanced ways. Let's explore the various manners in which these different types of meetings are expressed in Spanish.
The English verb "to meet" can mean "to make acquaintance" with someone. Although the Spanish verb for "to meet" in this sense is conocer, remember that in the present and other tenses, this verb can also mean "to know" or "be familiar with":
Por ejemplo: Conozco a María.
For example: I know María.
Caption 11, Lecciones con Carolina Saber y conocerPlay Caption
In the preterite tense, however, the meaning of the verb conocer typically changes to "meet" in the sense of having "met" someone for the first time:
Conocí a mi marido, Carlos, hace unos dieciocho años.
I met my husband, Carlos, about eighteen years ago.
Caption 9, Burgos María de los ÁngelesPlay Caption
To find out more similarly-evolving verbs, check out this lesson on verbs that change meaning in the preterite tense.
In other tenses, conocer can mean "to know," "to meet," or even to "have been" somewhere, and context will typically tell you which meaning is meant. But, since "meeting" is the topic at hand, let's take a look at a couple more examples where the verb conocer means just that:
Le gusta mucho conocer personas nuevas.
She likes very much to meet new people.
Caption 21, El Aula Azul Mis PrimosPlay Caption
Encantadísima de conocerte.
Very nice to meet you.
Caption 39, Yago 4 El secreto - Part 11Play Caption
There are several verbs that mean "to meet" as in "get together" with someone in terms of some outing, for coffee, or even a more formal "meeting" in Spanish. Let's take a look at some of them in action:
y ahí nos reunimos varias personas
and several of us get together there
Caption 41, Cleer Entrevista con JackyPlay Caption
Espero que esta situación pase rápido para poder reunirme con mis amigos, familiares
I hope this situation gets over soon so I can meet with my friends, relatives,
Captions 34-35, El coronavirus La cuarentena en Coro, Venezuela - Part 2Play Caption
Nos vamos a encontrar a las cuatro. -Ajá.
We're going to meet at four. -Uh-huh.
Caption 53, Yago 12 Fianza - Part 6Play Caption
Sí, me voy a encontrar con una amiga.
Yes, I'm going to meet a friend.
Caption 4, Muñeca Brava 46 Recuperación - Part 4Play Caption
To see more uses of the verb encontrar(se), be sure to look at this lesson on The Many Facets of the Verb Encontrar.
y quedamos en la escuela por la mañana.
and we met at the school in the morning.
Caption 25, El Aula Azul Dos historiasPlay Caption
In Spain, where they often use the present perfect more than in Latin America, the verb quedar is often heard in that tense to talk about "meeting" or "having made plans with" someone, as follows:
Hemos quedado a las ocho.
We've made plans for eight o'clock/We're meeting at eight o'clock.
He quedado con Juan para ir al cine.
I've made plans with Juan to go to the movies.
¿Usted cree que pueda verse con usted y con Amalia?
Do you think that he can meet with you and with Amalia?Play Caption
A ver si nos juntamos,
Let's see if we can get together,
Caption 31, Festivaliando Mono Núñez - Part 13Play Caption
If you want to ask a new (or old) friend, "Do you want to meet/hang out/get together"? you could use any of these verbs. Here are some examples of people asking other people to "meet" or get together:
¿Nos podemos encontrar ahora?
Can we meet now?
Caption 51, Cuatro Amigas Piloto - Part 5Play Caption
Pero ¿en dónde nos podemos ver?
But where can we meet?Play Caption
You can also use the verb salir to ask someone "to go out" with you, which, like in English, might often (but not always) have a romantic connotation:
¿Te gustaría salir conmigo alguna vez?
Would you like to go out with me sometime?
So, how do you say "meeting" in Spanish, for example, a business or some other type of meeting? Let's take a look:
si acaso tengo alguna junta,
if perhaps I have some meeting,
Caption 12, Yo estudio en el Tec de MonterreyPlay Caption
Yo sé pero entiéndame, tengo una reunión con mi jefe.
I know, but understand me, I have a meeting with my boss.
Caption 25, Tu Voz Estéreo Embalsamado - Part 6Play Caption
Note that when the noun la reunión means "the meeting" in Spanish, it can be thought of as a "false cognate," or word that sounds like an English word but actually means something different. However, along with el reencuentro and even el encuentro in some contexts, la reunión can also mean "reunion" as in "una reunión familiar" (a family reunion) or, alternatively, a social "meeting" or "gathering":
Usted me acaba de confirmar que ese tipo sí está aquí en esta reunión
You just confirmed to me that that guy really is here at this gathering,Play Caption
The noun el encuentro can additionally be used to talk about such a "gathering":
se crea un ambiente propicio para el encuentro familiar.
a favorable environment is created for family gatherings.
Caption 30, Coro, Venezuela La Zona ColonialPlay Caption
Or, it might describe something on a larger scale, which might additionally be translated as something like a "conference":
vinimos a este encuentro nacional y...
we came to this national meeting and...Play Caption
Note that you can also use el encuentro to describe an incident of "running into" someone, as in a chance "meeting" or "encounter," or even an "encounter" in terms of a "meetup" or "hookup" with a friend or more than a friend:
Era Pablo Echarri, y luego de ese encuentro ya nada sería igual en la vida de ambos
It was Pablo Echarri, and after that encounter, nothing would be the same in their lives.
Captions 64-65, Biografía Natalia Oreiro - Part 6Play Caption
Bueno, yo creo que necesitaba un encuentro más personal.
Well, I think that I needed a more personal encounter.
Caption 3, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 12Play Caption
Note that the word "meeting" could be substituted for "encounter" in either one of these sentences.
Although there are many more ways in which the verb and noun forms of "meet" can be used in English with different Spanish equivalents, let's conclude with a few additional examples:
So, what if we are talking about a sports "meet"? This type of event is often referred to as una competencia (literally "a competition") or un campeonato (a championship), e.g. una competencia de atletismo (a track meet) or un campeonato de natación (a swim meet). And, although the noun el encuentro can sometimes refer to such events as well, in the context of sports, el encuentro might also be translated as "match" or "game":
el encuentro dura noventa minutos en total,
the game lasts for a total of ninety minutes,
Caption 17, Sergio El fútbol en EspañaPlay Caption
And, when two sports teams "meet" one another, the verb that is used is enfrentarse (literally "to face"), as in: Los dos equipos se enfrentaron (The two teams "met" or "faced off").
The verb used to talk about "meeting" or "fulfilling" a requirement or obligation is cumplir con:
El primer paso importante para ello es cumplir con todos los requisitos.
The first important step for it is to meet all of the requirements.
Caption 4, Raquel Abrir una cuenta bancariaPlay Caption
Hence the noun for not fulfilling or "meeting" such duties, etc. is incumplimiento (nonfulfillment).
For our final example, the verbs that mean "to meet" in the sense of things "converging" or "coming together" include confluir and unirse. Let's look at an example with the latter (although the former could be substituted with the same meaning):
mucho movimiento, mucho tráfico porque se unen muchas calles importantes de la ciudad.
a lot of movement, a lot of traffic because many important streets of the city meet.
Captions 38-39, El Trip MadridPlay Caption
We hope that this lesson has taught you how to talk about the many forms of "meeting(s)" in Spanish. There are, of course, a lot more Spanish nouns and verbs that could be translated as "meet" or "meeting" in English in different contexts. Can you think of any more? Let us know with your suggestions and comments.
Let's talk about the passive voice in Spanish!
Let's start by understanding the concept of voz (voice) in a sentence- in English or Spanish. This refers to the relationship between a sentence's subject and verb. A sentence's voice can be active or passive. But what's the difference?
In the active voice, the subject performs a verb's action onto an object and is thus considered the sentence's actor or agent (the person or thing that carries out the action). Let's see some examples:
Pedro come galletas.
"Pedro come galletas" [Pedro eats cookies].Play Caption
In this caption, Pedro is the subject/agent who executes the action of "eating" the object (the cookies).
eh... pintábamos muchísimos fondos oscuros
um... we painted a ton of dark backgrounds
Caption 99, María Marí Su pasión por su arte - Part 1Play Caption
In this example, "we" is the subject/agent who carried out the action of "painting" the object, "a ton of dark backgrounds."
Gabriel García Márquez escribió muchos libros.
Gabriel García Márquez wrote a lot of books.Play Caption
And finally, here, Gabriel García Márquez is the subject, and agent, who performed the action of "writing" the object (a lot of books).
The Passive Voice
In the passive voice, on the other hand, what was previously the object in the active voice actually becomes the subject, but, this time, receives the action of the verb. At the same time, the previous subject becomes a "passive agent" who may or may not be mentioned at the end of the sentence. That said, before finding out how to convey sentences in the passive voice in Spanish, let's convert our previous English examples of the active voice to the passive voice:
Active: Pedro eats cookies
Passive: Cookies are eaten by Pedro
um... we painted a ton of dark backgrounds
um... a ton of dark backgrounds were painted by us
Active: Gabriel García Márquez wrote a lot of books.
Passive: A lot of books were written by Gabriel García Márquez.
Now that we have a better concept of the passive voice, how do we express it in Spanish? Let's learn two different formulas for doing so.
In this first formula, the verb ser (to be) is conjugated in accordance with the subject of the sentence and followed by a past participle (you may wish to consult this lesson that covers conjugating the past participle). In this construction, the participle (the equivalent of English words like "spoken," "eaten," "gone," etc.) must agree with the subject in terms of number and gender. Subsequently, por plus an agent may be optionally added to explain who or what completed the action. Let's take a look at some examples of this formula in Spanish:
y es escrito por mí personalmente.
and is personally written by me.
Caption 46, Los Tiempos de Pablo Escobar Capítulo 1 - Part 7Play Caption
En el Siglo dieciocho, las costas de San José en Almería eran asaltadas frecuentemente por piratas
In the eighteenth century, the coasts of San José in Almería were assaulted frequently by pirates
Captions 32-33, Club de las ideas Batería de breves - Part 1Play Caption
Las tarjetas fueron usadas
The cards were usedPlay Caption
Note that in accordance with las tarjetas, the third person plural of ser, fueron, is used along with the feminine plural participle usadas. However, in contrast to the other two examples where por is used to identify the person or people who carried out the action, here, the agent is unknown and thus unmentioned. Let's move on to our second formula.
This construction is formed with se and a verb in third person singular or plural, depending upon whether what is being spoken about (the subject) is singular or plural. Let's see a few examples:
Este vino se hace con una de las uvas más populares
This wine is made with one of the most popular grapes
Caption 21, Amaya Cata de vinosPlay Caption
las corridas se celebraban en la Plaza Mayor.
bullfights were held in the Plaza Mayor.
Caption 5, El Trip MadridPlay Caption
"Garr", no entiendo para qué se hicieron esos uniformes.
Garr, I don't understand why those uniforms were made.
Caption 53, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 2Play Caption
In the first caption, the verb hacer is conjugated in the third person singular to agree with el vino, while celebrar and hacer in the second and third examples are plural in agreement with las corridas and los uniformes. Notice that there is no mention of the entity who performed the action in any of these sentences since this second formula rarely mentions the action's agent.
The passive voice is more commonly encountered in the media or literature or when the agent that carried out the action is unknown or considered less relevant. It can only be used with transitive verbs, or verbs that are capable of transmitting some action onto a direct object. In terms of tenses, you may have noticed that our examples have included the present, imperfect, and preterite. While the passive voice formulas contain particular grammatical specifications, there is no mention of any of the specific Spanish verb tenses because active Spanish sentences in any verb tense can be converted to the passive voice. With this in mind, let's conclude this lesson with a present perfect tense example of the verb descubrir (to discover) in the active as well as both formats of the passive voice:
Científicos han descubierto que cuando un abrazo dura más de veinte segundos se produce un efecto terapéutico
Scientists have discovered that when a hug lasts more than twenty seconds, a therapeutic effect is produced
Captions 5-7, Aprendiendo con Silvia El abrazoPlay Caption
Ya que ellos, pues, han sido descubiertos en Inglaterra
Since they, well, have been discovered in England
Caption 40, Hugo Rodríguez Duendes artesanalesPlay Caption
porque se han descubierto muchas virtudes
because many virtues have been discovered
Caption 9, Cómetelo Crema de brócoli - Part 1Play Caption
That's all for today. For more information on the passive voice in Spanish, check out this four-part video series on La voz pasiva as well as this lesson on the passive vs. impersonal se constructions. And don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
The present subjunctive in Spanish is one of the many verb tenses in the Spanish subjunctive mood. The subjunctive mood is one of three moods in Spanish (the indicative, the imperative, and the subjunctive) that indicates the presence of doubt, emotion, or subjectivity, in contrast to the indicative, which states facts. The focus of today's lesson will be the conjugation of the Spanish present subjunctive tense.
Before going on to conjugation, let's see an example of the present subjunctive in Spanish, which typically appears after the present indicative in dependent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction such as que (that). As a simple example, if you say, "I hope [that] you practice at home" with ustedes (plural you) in Spanish, the correct manner of doing so would be
espero que practiquen en su casa
I hope you guys practice at home
Caption 60, Lecciones de guitarra Con Cristhian - Part 3Play Caption
rather than espero que practican en su casa because the verb tense changes from the indicative (practican) to the subjunctive (practiquen) due to the "hope" regarding whether the action will take place. In another lesson, we will explore the many scenarios in which the Spanish subjunctive mood comes into play.
The first step in conjugating most verbs in the present subjunctive is to recall the present indicative yo (I) form of the verb. We then remove the -o in order to get the stem and add the corresponding endings for -ar and -er/-ir verbs, which we can think of as the "opposite" of the endings for each verb class in the present indicative.
Let's use the aforementioned formula to get the stems for three of the most common regular verbs:
|hablar (to speak)||hablo||habl-|
|comer (to eat)||como||com-|
|subir (to go up)||subo||sub-|
Now, let's look at the present subjunctive endings for -ar vs. -er/-ir verbs:
|Personal Pronoun:||-ar Verbs:||-er/-ir Verbs:|
Armed with this information, we can easily conjugate these verbs in the present subjunctive in Spanish. You will note that in the present subjunctive, the yo form and the él/ella/usted form are exactly the same.
Now, let's see these Spanish present subjunctive verbs in action:
Porque quiero que hablemos de negocios.
Because I want us to talk about business.
Caption 3, Muñeca Brava 8 Trampas - Part 6Play Caption
¿'tas listo? -¿Qué querés que yo coma lo mismo?
You ready? -What, do you want me to eat the same thing?
Caption 43, Factor Fobia Cucarachas - Part 1Play Caption
Dígale que no suba.
Tell him not to come up.
Caption 43, Muñeca Brava 33 El partido - Part 6Play Caption
Note that the in the vast majority of cases, even verbs with spelling changes in the yo form will follow this very same formula for obtaining their stems/conjugations. Let's see several examples:
Present Subjunctive Conjugations:
caber (to fit): quepa, quepas, quepa, quepamos, quepáis, quepan
coger (to take): coja, cojas, coja, cojamos, cojáis, cojan
conocer (to know): conozca, conozcas, conozca, conozcamos, conozcáis, conozcan
decir (to say): diga, digas, diga, digamos, digáis, digan
hacer (to make/do): haga, hagas, haga, hagamos, hagáis, hagan
poner (to put): ponga, pongas, ponga, pongamos, pongáis, pongan
salir (to go out): salga, salgas, salga, salgamos, salgáis, salgan
tener (to have): tenga, tengas, tenga, tengamos, tengáis, tengan
traer (to bring): traiga, traigas, traiga, traigamos, traigáis, traigan
ver (to see): vea, veas, vea, veamos, veáis, vean
We will now hear a couple of these in context:
Lo mejor es que tengan sala de estudio
The best thing is for them to have a study room
Caption 45, Club de las ideas La bibliotecaPlay Caption
Bueno, te invito ahora a que conozcas el teatro.
Well, now I invite you to see the theater.
Caption 24, El teatro. Conversación con un doble de acción.Play Caption
Let's examine several categories of stem-changing verbs that behave slightly differently in the present subjunctive in Spanish:
An example of this category is querer (to want), for which the yo form is quiero. While the stem for this verb is indeed quier- as usual, the stem change does not take place in the nosotros/as and vosotros/as forms, which use the stem of the infinitive (removing the -ar or -er) as follows:
quiera, quieras, quiera, queramos, queráis, quieran.
Additional verbs that fall into this category include: cerrar (to close), entender (to understand), and perder (to lose).
One example is volver (to return), and the yo form is vuelvo. The stem for this verb is vuelv-, but as with the previous category, there is no stem change in the nosotros/as and vosotros/as forms, which also take the stem from the infinitive:
vuelva, vuelvas, vuelva, volvamos, volváis, vuelvan
Some other verbs in this category are: poder (to be able), contar (to tell), volver (to return), and encontrar (to find).
An example would be sentir (to feel). As in the first category, these verbs change stems in all forms except for nosotros/as and vosotros/as. With -ir verbs, however, the -ie changes to an -i, as follows:
sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintáis, sientan
Verbs that work similarly include repetir (to repeat) and preferir (to prefer).
The verb dormir (to sleep) falls into this category in which verbs change stems in all forms except nosotros/as and vosotros/as, where the -o changes to a -u:
duerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, durmáis, duerman
The verb morir (to die) also belongs to this class of verbs.
Let's listen to a couple of examples of such stem-changing verbs in the present subjunctive in Spanish:
lo mejor sería que vuelvas al convento.
the best thing would be for you to return to the convent.
Caption 15, Muñeca Brava 33 El partido - Part 7Play Caption
Espero que ahora entiendan mejor
I hope that you now understand betterPlay Caption
To make matters a bit more complicated, some verbs in the Spanish present subjunctive change spelling in order to maintain their pronunciation, and some verbs change both stems and spelling! Let's take a look at these additional verb categories.
It is worth noting that the g in verbs ending in -ger and -gir changes to a j in the Spanish present subjunctive, for example, in the aforementioned verb coger (to get). However, this doesn't really deviate from our formula since the present indicative yo form of coger is cojo. Other verbs that follow this pattern in Spanish include corregir (to correct), elegir (to choose), and recoger (to pick up).
corregir: corrija, corrijas, corrija, corrijamos, corrijáis, corrijan
elegir: elija, elijas, elija, elijamos, elijáis, elijan
recoger: recoja, recojas, recoja, recojamos, recojáis, recojan
In the Spanish present subjunctive, verbs ending in -car change their final consonant to -qu, verbs ending in -gar change to -gu, and -zar verbs' z changes to a c. Let's take a look at verbs in each of these categories:
sacar (to take out): saque, saques, saque, saquemos, saquéis, saquen
tocar (to take): toque, toques, toque, toquemos, toquéis, toquen
cargar (to charge): cargue, cargues, cargue, carguemos, carguéis, carguen
pagar (to pay): pague, pagues, pague, paguemos, paguéis, paguen
lanzar (to throw): lance, lances, lance, lancemos, lancéis, lancen
empezar (to start): empiece, empieces, empiece, empecemos, empecéis, empiecen
Let's hear some examples of verbs with spelling changes in the Spanish present subjunctive:
Es que no necesito que me recojas hoy.
It's just that I don't need you to pick me up today.
Caption 52, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 9 - Part 6Play Caption
Bueno, ¿tú me aconsejas que comience a escribir ya con todas estas inquietudes que tengo?
Well, do you advise me to start writing now with all these concerns that I have?Play Caption
Although you have seen that there are a lot of nuances to conjugating verbs in the present subjunctive in Spanish, there are only six verbs that are considered truly irregular. We have provided their conjugations here:
Note that the yo and él/ella/usted conjugations of the verb dar, dé, has an accent on the e to distinguish it from the preposition de (of/from).
Let's conclude by hearing a couple of these irregular verbs in the Spanish present subjunctive in action:
Espero que sea una bonita sorpresa.
I hope that it's a nice surprise.
Caption 11, NPS No puede ser 1 - El concurso - Part 8Play Caption
Dígame algo que no sepa.
Tell me something I don't know.
Caption 3, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 7 - Part 4Play Caption
And speaking of learning new things, we hope you've found this lesson on conjugating verbs in the Spanish present subjunctive helpful! To hear a bunch more verbs conjugated in the Spanish present subjunctive, we recommend this video on Subjunctivo y sentimientos (Subjuntive and Feelings), and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
What is the present perfect tense in Spanish? Despite its name in English, the Spanish present perfect tense is actually one of the past tenses in Spanish, which indicates that one "has done" some action within some specific period of time. This lesson will examine how to conjugate this useful Spanish tense as well as providing examples of when to use it.
The present perfect tense in Spanish is relatively easy to conjugate. To do so, we should remember a simple formula: haber in present tense + participle. Let's first take a look at the present conjugation of the verb haber, which corresponds to the English "has" or "have" in the present perfect:
|Personal Pronoun:||Conjugation of Haber:|
Now, let's examine how to conjugate the participle form of verbs in Spanish, which corresponds to English words with endings like -ed or -en, such as "taken," "looked," "baked," etc.
Conjugating the participle with -ar verbs:
Take the infinitive, remove the -ar, and add the suffix -ado:
hablar: hablado (to talk/speak: talked/spoken)
mirar: mirado (to watch: watched)
comenzar: comenzado (to start/begin: started/begun)
bailar: bailado (to dance: danced)
Conjugating the participle with -er and -ir verbs:
Take the infinitive, remove the -er or -ir, and add the suffix -ido:
comer: comido (to eat: eaten)
aprender: aprendido (to learn: learned)
recibir: recibido (to receive: received)
subir: subido (to rise/go up: risen/gone up)
Ahora que hemos aprendido (Now that we've learned) how to conjugate verbs in the present perfect tense in Spanish, we should think about when to use it. Just like the present perfect in English, we use the Spanish present perfect to describe actions that have been completed within a certain period of time. As previously mentioned, because these actions were completed in the past, however recent, the present perfect is considered a past tense in Spanish, in which it is known as el pretérito perfecto (literally the "past" or "preterite perfect"). With this in mind, let's take a look at some examples:
Ya hemos visto que reciclar contribuye de forma importante,
We have already seen that recycling contributes in an important way,
Caption 23, 3R Campaña de reciclaje - Part 3Play Caption
¿Pero se han preguntado alguna vez cómo se cultivan y se comercializan?
But have you ever wondered how they are grown and sold?
Captions 75-76, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 16Play Caption
Hoy ha llovido todo el día.
"Hoy ha llovido todo el día" [Today it has rained the whole day].Play Caption
Sometimes, Spanish speakers from Spain in particular use the present perfect to talk about actions in the recent past in situations in which English speakers would most likely use the past tense and Latin Americans would probably use the Spanish preterite. Let's look at an example:
Hola, soy Ariana Moreno y he dormido fatal. He pasado una mala noche.
Hello, I'm Ariana Moreno, and I've slept horribly. I've had a bad night.
Captions 1-3, Ariana Cita médicaPlay Caption
Pues nada, que ha empezado el día superbién, se ha levantado a las ocho, ha desayunado en la cafetería al lado de la escuela como siempre, ha venido a clase, hemos tenido la clase como todos los lunes.
Well, she's started the day very well, she's gotten up at eight, she's had breakfast in the cafeteria next to the school as always, she's come to class, we've had the class like every Monday.
Captions 6-10, El Aula Azul Conversación: Un día de mala suertePlay Caption
What are grammatical "moods"? Many definitions of grammatical moods in linguistics explain them as features of verbs that describe "modality." But, what is "modality"?
In a nutshell, "modality" refers to a speaker's attitude toward what he or she is saying, which might entail such concepts as possibility, probability, certainty or doubt. "Moods" are not the same as tenses, which convey when things happen, and each of the sixteen Spanish tenses fall into one of the three mood categories. That said, let's delve deeper into the three grammatical moods in Spanish: the indicative, the subjunctive, and the imperative.
Most simply put, the indicative mood describes facts, things about which the speaker is certain, or "the objective truth." Let's take a look at some examples of sentences with verbs in the indicative mood.
Estoy seguro que voy a poder ayudarla en algo.
I'm sure that I am going to be able to help you with something.
Caption 7, Yago 9 Recuperación - Part 7Play Caption
This speaker says in the Spanish present indicative tense that he's seguro (sure) that he will be able to help the person to whom he's speaking. Such phrases referring to certainty like Estoy seguro que (I'm sure that) or even Yo creo que (I believe that) are tip-offs that the verb(s) that follow(s) will be in the indicative because they indicate conviction. However, many examples of verbs in the indicative mood in Spanish won't be quite so straightforward.
Hablaremos sobre el candombe.
We'll talk about candombe.
Caption 11, Sonido Babel El candombe de UruguayPlay Caption
In this example of the future indicative tense in Spanish, the speaker states (with certainty) what it is he will talk about. Let's take a look at an additional example.
¡Sí! Fuimos a buscar conchas pero no fue fácil encontrarlas.
Yes! We went to look for shells but it wasn't easy to find them.
Caption 13, Guillermina y Candelario El ManglarPlay Caption
In this final example in the Spanish preterite tense, the speaker clearly states the objective truth about what happened in the past: Fuimos a buscar (We went to look for) seashells, and no fue (it wasn't) easy. Although whether or not something is easy is a subjective concept, it is important to remember that it is the speaker's attitude or belief about what he or she is stating that determines the mood.
There are ten verb tenses in the Spanish indicative mood: the present, the imperfect, the preterite, the future, the simple conditional, the present perfect, the pluperfect, the past anterior, the conditional perfect, and the future perfect. For a closer look at each of these tenses with examples, we recommend this lesson on the Spanish indicative tenses.
While the indicative conveys certainty and objectivity, the subjunctive conveys such opposing concepts as subjectivity, doubt, wishful thinking, hypothetical situations, and more. Let's take a look at some examples:
No, no, no. No creo que sea muy peligroso
No, no, no. I don't think he's very dangerous,Play Caption
Just like the expression Creo que (I believe that) lets you know that the following verb will be conjugated in the indicative, the phrase No creo que (I don't believe that) is an indicator for the subjunctive. Although we won't enter into verb conjugation in this lesson, we will say that verbs in the subjunctive mood are conjugated differently than in the indicative: for example, sea is the subjunctive conjugation of ser (to be) in third person singular and is thus used in place of the indicative form es. Let's take a look at another example:
de verdad, esperamos que te hayamos podido devolver la alegría.
we really hope that we've been able to give you back your joy.
Caption 58, Tu Voz Estéreo Laura - Part 17Play Caption
Here, the indicative present perfect form hemos podido (we've been able) has been replaced with the subjunctive present perfect, hayamos podido, because the speaker is expressing a hope that something has happened rather than stating that it actually has. Let's look at another example of the subjunctive mood in Spanish:
Si yo fuera un hombre, yo pensaría que las mujeres son complicadas.
If I were a man, I would think that women are complicated.
Caption 28, Conjugación El verbo 'pensar'Play Caption
This sentence employs a common construction that combines the imperfect subjunctive with the Spanish conditional tense to talk about what "would" happen "were" a hypothetical situation in place.
Learning all of the situations and/or constructions that require the subjunctive mood in Spanish can be quite challenging for native English speakers since verbs in the subjunctive mood in English rarely change. As a guideline, statements in which the second verb in a construction changes to the subjunctive include wishes like deseo que (I wish that...), emotions like me alegro de que (I'm happy that...), impersonal expressions like es importante que (it's important that...), recommendations like sugiero que (I suggest that...), and doubts like dudo que (I doubt that...), just to name a few.
The Spanish subjunctive mood encompasses six tenses: the present subjunctive, the imperfect subjunctive, the future subjunctive, the present perfect subjunctive, the pluperfect subjunctive, and the future perfect subjunctive, which are explained in greater detail in this lesson on the subjunctive tenses in Spanish that also touches on our third and final Spanish mood.
Understanding the speaker's "attitude" in the imperative mood is less nuanced: one is "ordering" or "commanding" someone else to do something:
¡Hazlo todo de nuevo!
Do it all over again!
Caption 32, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 3 - Part 7Play Caption
This is an example of a positive, informal command (with tú, or the singular, informal "you") in Spanish. Let's see another example:
Chicos, no me hagan esta broma tan pesada.
Guys, don't play this very annoying joke on me.
Caption 49, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 1Play Caption
Here, we see the negative command that corresponds to the pronoun ustedes (plural "you"). Let's check out one more:
Empecemos por la forma, luego iremos al contenido.
Let's start with the form, then we'll go on to the content.
Caption 6, Ana Carolina CondicionalesPlay Caption
This "less commanding" sentence reflects the imperative form that goes with nosotros/as, or "we," which you can learn more about in the lesson Let's Learn Spanish Commands with Nosotros/as.
We can group Spanish commands into eight categories: positive commands with tú, negative commands with tú, (positive or negative) commands with usted (formal "you"), (positive or negative) commands with ustedes (plural "you"), positive commands with vos (informal "you" in certain regions), positive commands with vosotros/as (informal plural "you" in Spain), negative commands with vosotros/as, and (positive or negative) commands with nosotros/as (we). For a more in-depth look at the various types of commands in Spanish, we recommend the following four-part series on El modo imperativo.
We hope that this lesson has shed some light on the concept of the three grammatical "moods" in Spanish and would like to conclude it with an imperative sentence: No te olvides de dejarnos tus sugerencias y comentarios (Don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments).
In past lessons, we have spoken about informal commands and formal commands in Spanish when addressed to one or more people. But, what if we want to give a command to a group of people of which we are a part? That's where the imperative form for nosotros/as ("we") comes in.
While the meaning of positive and negative commands with tú, usted, ustedes, and vosotros can feel more, well... "commanding" ("Do this!" or "Don't do that!"), the translation for commands with nosotros/as sounds more like a suggestion: "Let's..." do such and such a thing. That said, "let's take a look at" (veamos) a few examples:
Miremos quién era Pablo Escobar.
Let's look at who Pablo Escobar was.Play Caption
Comamos una pasta.
Let's eat some pasta.
Caption 74, Sofy y Caro Comida en un restaurantePlay Caption
y abramos nuestro corazón a otras culturas,
and let's open our hearts to other cultures,
Caption 79, Silvina Una entrevista con la artistaPlay Caption
Now that we know the meaning of nosotros commands, let's learn how to conjugate them. In order to do so, we should revisit (or learn) how to conjugate verbs in the present subjunctive because the nosotros/as imperative form is the same as the nosotros/as present subjunctive.
To summarize briefly, to conjugate the present subjunctive, we take a verb's stem (most typically the yo form of the verb minus the -o), and add the appropriate endings (-e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, and -en for -ar verbs and -a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, and -an for -er and -ir verbs). Let's take a look:
|Personal Pronoun:||-ar Verbs||-er Verbs||-ir Verbs|
Although these are simple examples with regular verbs, other verbs are a bit more complex. For example, stem-changing verbs like perder (to lose), which changes to pierdo in the present, change stems in the subjunctive in all forms except nosotros/as and vosotros/as, making the conjugation in the nosotros form perdamos (rather than pierdamos). However, the important thing to remember is that the present subjunctive "we" form is the exact same as the nosotros/as command form! So, if you know one, you know the other.
So, how do we tell someone "let's not" (do something)? As Carlos explains to us in the following clip, constructing a negative command with nosostros in Spanish is as easy as adding "no" in front of the affirmative form:
imperativo afirmativo: "Hablemos de este tema", imperativo negativo: "No hablemos de esto con tu mamá".
affirmative imperative: "Hablemos de este tema" [Let's talk about this subject], negative imperative: "No hablemos de esto con tu mamá" [Let's not talk about this with your mom].
Captions 30-32, Carlos explica El modo imperativo 4: Nosotros + reflexivosPlay Caption
Let's see one more example:
Así que no perdamos más tiempo
So let's not waste any more time
Caption 11, NPS No puede ser 1 - El concurso - Part 2Play Caption
Of course, verbs that have an irregular form in the present subjunctive also have an irregular form in the nosotros/as imperative form, for example, sepamos for saber, seamos for ser, estemos for estar, etc. So, when we talk about irregular verbs in the nosotros command form, we are talking about verbs whose form deviates from the present subjunctive form. This is only the case for the verb ir (to go) because, to say "Let's go" in Spanish, the present indicative conjugation of nosotros is used rather than the present subjunctive conjugation:
Let's go, Merycita.
Caption 39, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 3Play Caption
On the other hand, when we want to say "Let's not go," we do use the subjunctive form, vayamos:
No vayamos al evento.
Let's not go to the event.
An alternative way to say "Let's" in Spanish is with the following formula:
Let's take a look at some examples:
¡Vamos a bailar!
Let's dance!Play Caption
Bueno, vamos a ver.
Well, let's see.Play Caption
¡Vamos a empezar!
Caption 10, Ana Carolina GérmenesPlay Caption
Note that while this very same construction can also mean "we are going to" (do something), you will often be able to tell one's intended meaning from context. For example, in the caption above, ¡Vamos a bailar! has been translated as "Let's dance!" However, if a dance teacher said, Hoy vamos a bailar la cumbia as an explanation of the class's daily agenda, the more likely translation would be "Today, we're going to dance cumbia." That said, there are cases in which the intention of such a statement may be difficult to discern.
How do we talk about our emotions in Spanish? Although there are many different ways, this lesson will focus on three main categories of words that are typically used to express the whole range of emotions in Spanish while covering some of the major emotions in Spanish we might wish to talk about.
The three main word categories for talking about our emotions in Spanish are adjectives, reflexive verbs, and nouns. Let's take a closer look at some tendencies of each of these three parts of speech when describing emotions in Spanish.
Remember that adjectives modify, or describe, nouns, and to name a few simple ones in Spanish, we could take contento/a(s) (happy), triste(s) (sad), and enojado/a(s) (angry). As always, such emotional adjectives must agree with the noun they modify in terms of number and gender. You will note that the adjectives that describe emotions in Spanish are commonly used in conjunction with particular verbs, such as estar (to be), sentir (to feel), ponerse (to become/get), or quedarse (to become/get), to name a few. So, "Estoy contento," for example, would mean: "I'm happy."
Reflexive verbs in Spanish actually convey the action of feeling a certain emotion in and of themselves. As an example, since enojarse means "to get angry," one could say simply "Me enojé" (I got angry) in lieu of using an adjective/verb combination like "Me puse enojado," which conveys the same thing.
As a third option, nouns like tristeza (sadness) are additionally employed to talk about emotions in Spanish. Among others, one common manner of doing so is with the word "Qué..." in fixed expressions like, "¡Qué tristeza!" which literally means, "What sadness!" (but would be more commonly expressed in English with an expression like "How sad!"). Verbs like sentir (to feel) or tener (to have) are also commonly used with such emotional nouns in sentences such as "Siento mucha alegría" ("I feel really happy," or, more literally, "I feel a lot of happiness").
Adjectives that mean "happy" include feliz/felices, contento/a(s), and alegre(s). Let's take a look at some examples of these words in context along with some of the aforementioned verbs:
pues, que yo creo que él sí quiere formalizar algo conmigo y yo estoy muy feliz.
well, I think that he does want to formalize something with me, and I'm very happy.
Captions 40-41, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 5 - Part 9Play Caption
y, pues, me siento muy contento de que lo... lo pude lograr.
and well, I feel very happy that I... I was able to achieve it.
Caption 27, Rueda de la muerte Parte 1Play Caption
Y estoy alegre, alegre de que no sea cierto.
And I'm happy, happy it's not true.
Caption 31, Chus recita poemas Neruda y PizarnikPlay Caption
Remember that the verb estar is used to talk about emotions in Spanish rather than the verb ser because emotions tend to be temporary rather than permanent. That said, if someone (or something) permanently embodies a particular emotional attribute (e.g. a "happy person"), the verb ser can be used because this emotion becomes a trait, as in the following example:
La Vela se caracteriza además por ser un pueblo alegre,
La Vela is also characterized as being a happy town,
Captions 16-17, Estado Falcón Locos de la Vela - Part 1Play Caption
Moving on to the verb category, a common reflexive verb that expresses the idea of "cheering up" or "getting" or "being happy" or "glad" is alegrarse. Let's see some examples of this verb:
Qué bien; me alegro de que estén aquí.
How great; I'm glad you're here.
Caption 42, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 2Play Caption
A tal punto que yo me alegré mucho, mucho, cuando supe que ibas a pasar veinticinco años en la cárcel.
To the point that I felt very happy, very, when I found out you were going to spend twenty-five years in prison.
Captions 56-57, Yago 14 La peruana - Part 1Play Caption
Lastly, we will deal with the corresponding nouns that mean "happiness" or "joy": (la) alegría and (la) felicidad.
Ay, bueno, Don Ramiro, de verdad, qué alegría escuchar eso.
Oh, well, Mister Ramiro, really, what a joy to hear that.
Caption 33, Tu Voz Estéreo Laura - Part 10Play Caption
While "what a joy" was translated a bit more literally here, it could also be a rough equivalent of "how great" (to hear that) or, of course, "I'm so happy" (to hear that). Let's look at one more example:
Hasta el sábado, amiga. ¡Qué felicidad!
See you Saturday, my friend. [I'm] so happy!
Caption 83, Cleer y Lida Conversación telefónica - Part 1Play Caption
Again, while "What happiness!" would be the literal translation of "¡Qué felicidad!" in English, you will note that this and many of our other examples of expressions with the word "Qué" plus an emotional noun have been translated slightly differently to reflect what an English speaker might say in a similar situation.
"Excitement" might be looked upon as an extension of happiness, and adjectives like emocionado/a(s) (excited) or entusiasmado/a(s) (excited/enthusiastic) express this in Spanish:
Estoy tan emocionado de volver a verte.
I am so excited to see you again.
Caption 53, Yago 11 Prisión - Part 3Play Caption
Ehm... Mi amor, estás muy entusiasmado con todo esto. -Mmm.
Um... My love, you're very enthusiastic about all this. -Mmm.
Caption 7, Yago 10 Enfrentamientos - Part 4Play Caption
As you might have guessed, the verbs for "to be/get excited" are emocionarse and entusiasmarse:
Ya me emocioné.
I already got excited.Play Caption
¿Por qué no entusiasmarnos más?
Why not get more excited?Play Caption
Although the noun (la) emoción can indeed mean "emotion," it can also mean "excitement":
Entonces... -¡Qué emoción! Qué emoción, y después... ¡oh!, ¿sí?
So... -How exciting! How exciting, and afterward... oh, really?
Captions 31-32, Clase Aula Azul La segunda condicional - Part 2Play Caption
That said, while emocionado/a(s), emocionarse, and "¡Qué emoción!" can also be used to talk about "being moved" with emotion, context should usually let you know the speaker's intention.
Triste(s) is undoubtedly the most common adjective that means "sad" in Spanish:
nos dimos cuenta [de] que mi barco estaba partido. Candelario se puso triste.
we realized my boat was split. Candelario got sad.
Captions 43-44, Guillermina y Candelario El Gran RescatePlay Caption
The reflexive verb entristecerse, on the other hand, means "to get" (or "feel" or "be" or "become," etc.) "sad":
La alumna se entristeció mucho al saber que se había fallecido su maestro.
The student became really sad when she found out that her teacher had passed away.
The noun (la) tristeza literally means "sadness," but is utilized along with "Qué" to say, "How sad":
Qué tristeza, ¿no? Terrible.
How sad, right? Terrible.
Caption 5, Tu Voz Estéreo Feliz Navidad - Part 19Play Caption
While there are a lot of adjectives that mean "angry" or "mad" in Spanish, the two most common standard (rather than slang) ones are probably enojado/a(s) and enfadado/a(s). Let's take a look:
¿Qué te pasa? ¿Estás enojado conmigo? No, no estoy enojado, estoy cansado. Estoy cansado, ¿OK?
What's going on with you? Are you mad at me? No, I'm not mad, I'm tired. I'm tired, OK?
Captions 42-43, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 3Play Caption
Estamos muy enfadadas. Estoy muy enfadada.
We are very angry. I am very angry.
Captions 30-31, El Aula Azul Estados de ánimoPlay Caption
By extension, verbs that mean "to get mad" or "angry" include enojarse and enfadarse, although there are many more:
Se enojó muchísimo con el viejo
She got really angry with my old man
Caption 86, Muñeca Brava 2 Venganza - Part 6Play Caption
No me enfadé con él, ni le insulté,
I didn't get mad at him, nor did I insult him,
Captions 78-79, Cortometraje Beta - Part 1Play Caption
There are a lot of nouns that refer to anger in Spanish, and we bet you guessed two of them: (el) enojo and (el) enfado. Others include (la) ira, (la) rabia, and (la) bronca. Although it is not as common to hear these words in expressions with "Qué..." as some of the other nouns we have talked about, we can give you some examples of how a couple of these words are used to express anger in captions from our Yabla Spanish library:
Lo que yo sentía en ese momento era algo mucho más profundo que un enfado.
What I felt at that moment was something way deeper than anger.
Caption 81, Cortometraje Beta - Part 1Play Caption
porque claro, alguna vez siento mucha rabia y no me gusta sentir tanta rabia
because of course, sometimes I feel a lot of rage and I don't like feeling so much ragePlay Caption
For a lot of additional standard and slangy manners of talking about anger, feel free to refer to this lesson on expressing feelings of tiredness or anger in Spanish.
Let's start with the adjective that means "surprised": sorprendido/a(s).
Profesores, la verdad es que me he quedado sorprendida;
Professors, the truth is that I have been surprised;
Caption 19, Alumnos extranjeros del Tec de MonterreyPlay Caption
The reflexive verb that means "to be" or "to get surprised" is sorprenderse:
Es que... me sorprendí, querida. -¿Por qué?
It's just that... I was surprised, dear. -Why?
Caption 65, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 11Play Caption
And finally, the noun (la) sorpresa can be used with "Qué" to say "How surprising" or "What a surprise":
Qué sorpresa. -Qué... Vale, qué lindo verte.
What a surprise. -What... Vale, how nice to see you.
Caption 15, Español para principiantes Saludos y encuentrosPlay Caption
The common Spanish adjectives decepcionado/a(s) and desilusionado/s(s) both mean "disappointed":
Mi novia está desilusionado conmigo por haberle mentido.
My girlfriend is disappointed in me for having lied to her.
No. Estoy decepcionada. ¿De mí? ¿Y por qué estás decepcionada?
No. I'm disappointed. In me? And why are you disappointed?
Captions 61-63, Muñeca Brava 41 La Fiesta - Part 6Play Caption
Naturally, the verbs decepcionarse and desilusionarse mean "to get" or "be disappointed." Let's take a look at them in context:
Me decepcioné mucho cuando suspendí el examen.
I was really disappointed when I failed the test.
Nada. Tengo qué sé yo, miedo a desilusionarme, va.
Nothing. I have, I don't know, a fear of being disappointed, well.
Caption 38, Muñeca Brava 39 Verdades - Part 5Play Caption
So, of course, "Qué desilusión" or "Qué decepción" would be "How disappointing" or "What a disappointment":
What a disappointment.Play Caption
Digo, personalmente no, no, no fue una desilusión porque viste, que cuando sos chico las pérdidas son diferentes.
I mean, personally it wasn't a disappointment because you know, when you are a kid, losses are different.
Captions 48-49, Biografía Natalia Oreiro - Part 2Play Caption
Let's conclude today's lesson by talking about some more of what might be considered sentimientos negativos (negative feelings) in Spanish: worry, anxiety, and stress.
Adjectives like preocupado/a(s)(worried), estresado/a(s) ("stressed" or "stressed out"), ansioso/a(s) (anxious), or nervioso/a(s), which often means "restless," "anxious," etc. in addition to "nervous," can be used to describe those unpleasant sensations in Spanish. Let's look at some examples:
Entonces, cuando usted sufra una infección fuerte o esté preocupado o estresado,
So, when you get a strong infection or are worried or stressed,
Captions 35-36, Los médicos explican Consulta con el médico: herpesPlay Caption
Le noto un poco nervioso, ¿le pasa algo? -No, no, no...
I notice you're a bit on edge, is something wrong with you? -No, no, no...
Caption 9, Muñeca Brava 33 El partido - Part 6Play Caption
¿Hay algún pensamiento o algo que le mantenga a usted ansioso o desde cuándo... o algo que haya desencadenado todos estos problemas?
Is there some thought or something that keeps you anxious or from which... or something that has triggered all these problems?
Captions 32-33, Los médicos explican Diagnóstico: nervios y estrésPlay Caption
The reflexive verb preocuparse means "to worry," while estresarse means "to stress" or "get stressed out," etc.:
¿De verdad se preocupa por mi seguridad? Claro que sí me preocupo.
Do you really worry about my safety? Of course I worry.
Captions 36-37, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 3Play Caption
un día tengo que pagar uno, otro día otro, y eso, la... la gente se estresa.
one day I have to pay one, another day another one, and that... people get stressed out.
Caption 67, Cuentas claras Sobreviviendo enero - Part 2Play Caption
The corresponding nouns for the verbs and adjectives we have talked about are: (la) preocupación (worry), (el) estrés (stress), (los) nervios (nerves), and (la) ansiedad (anxiety), which can be used in sentences in infinite ways to describe these nerve-wracking sensations. For example, we might say "¡Qué nervios!" or "¡Qué estrés!" to say something like "I'm so nervous/anxious!" or "How stressful!"/"I'm so stressed out!" Let's look at some additional examples of these nouns with the verbs tener (to have) and sentir (to feel):
Últimamente tengo mucho estrés y estar un poco en la naturaleza es muy bueno.
Lately, I've been really stressed out, and it's great to be in nature a bit.
Captions 68-69, Cleer y Lida PicnicPlay Caption
Siento ansiedad, la necesidad de contar quién soy
I feel anxiety, the need to tell who I am
Caption 2, Monsieur Periné Mi libertadPlay Caption
You will note that while the literal translation of the first example would be "I have a lot of stress," "I've been really stressed out" may be the more likely equivalent for English speakers in this context. On the other hand, while the translator opted for the more literal "I feel anxiety" in the second example, "I feel anxious" would also be a viable option in English. For additional insight into how to discuss anxiety and stress in Spanish, we recommend the video Diagnóstico: nervios y estrés (Diagnosis: Nerves and Stress) from our series Los médicos explican (The Doctors Explain).
We have covered a multitude of emotions in Spanish, and videos like this one from our Curso de español [Spanish Course] series about Expresiones de sentimientos [Expressions of Feelings] and this one on Estados de Ánimo [Moods] by El Aula Azul can help you to express many more. And while most of the feelings we have talked about are pretty clearly negative or positive, the video Ni bien ni mal [Neither Good nor Bad] can help us to talk about some of those so-so emotions in Spanish. Are there any other feelings or emotions you'd like to learn to speak about in Spanish? Don't forget to let us know in your suggestions and comments.