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Spanish Relative Pronouns, Part 1:El que, La que, Los que, Las que

Are you familiar with the Spanish relative pronouns el que, la que, los que and las que? Do you know how to use them? Today's lesson will explain the differences and similarities between these four Spanish phrases, all of which are most typically translated as "the one" or "ones that" or "who." 


Gender and Number Agreement 

Like other relative pronouns, el quela quelos que and las que are used to introduce relative clauses, which provide more information about a noun or noun phrase. Let's see an example:


Al principio, las traducciones al español son las que serán visibles para los estudiantes.

At first, the translations to Spanish are the ones that will be visible for the students.

Captions 39-40, Tutoriales de Yabla Cómo crear clases

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Here, las que is used to introduce the relative clause serán visibles para los estudiantes, making it clear that the "the ones" referenced are those that "will be visible for the students." Note that, in this case, las que is chosen because it refers to the feminine plural noun las traducciones (the translations) as these relative pronouns must agree with the nouns they refer to in terms of number and gender as broken down below:


el que ("the one that" or "who" for masculine singular nouns)

la que ("the one that" or "who" for feminine singular nouns)

los que ("the ones that" or "who" or "those" for masculine plural or mixed nouns)

las que ("the ones that" or "who" or "those" for feminine plural nouns)



The noun to which the relative pronoun refers is known as an antecedent or referent. Be aware that while antecedents are sometimes mentioned explicitly in sentences containing the relative pronouns el quela quelos que and las que (as was las traducciones in the aforementioned example), in other cases, the speaker understands what is being referenced based on the previous conversation. Let's look at each of these relative pronouns in sentences with and without antecedents.


El que


Ese dato es el que necesitamos, hermano.

That piece of information is the one that we need, brother.

Caption 27, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 4 - Part 12

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Here, we see that the relative pronoun el que refers to the masculine singular antecedent dato (piece of information). 


No Antecedent: 

¿El que me había robado a Cata?

The one who had stolen Cata from me?

Caption 5, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 11 - Part 2

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Although there is no antecedent in the sentence, we know from the previous dialogue that the speaker is referring to a boy named Sergio Casas, warranting the choice of the singular masculine el que. Remember that even though the third person singular male pronoun él has an accent to distinguish it from el meaning "the," the relative pronoun el que should not be written with an accent, even when referring to a specific male person.


La que


Yo soy la que le da el toque especial al grupo.

I'm the one who gives the group that special touch.

Caption 21, X6 1 - La banda - Part 6

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In this case, the female speaker's use of the word Yo (I) sheds light on her choice of the feminine singular la que.


No Antecedent: 

La que cantaste.

The one you sang.

Caption 6, Hispanoamericanos en Berlín Karla y Fernando hablan de música

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Here, it is clear to the listener based on the subjects' conversation topic that the speakers is referring to una canción (a song).


Los que


clientes como usted son los que necesitamos.

clients like you are the ones we need.

Caption 49, La Sucursal del Cielo Capítulo 2 - Part 10

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The inclusion of the noun clientes leaves no doubt as to what los que refers to.


No Antecedent: 

Los que viven en sus casas siempre andan por su misma zona

The ones who live in their homes always roam around their same area

Caption 25, Fermín y los gatos Mis gatas vecinas

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Since gatos (cats) is the subject of the video, we understand that los que refers to them. Let's see an additional example where los que is translated as "those":


Para los que no me conocen, mi nombre es Karina García

For those who don't know me, my name is Karina García,

Caption 2, Venezolanos por el mundo Karina en Barcelona - Part 2

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Las que


cosas parecidas a las que hacemos con los textos en papel.

things similar to the ones we do with text on paper.

Caption 13, Club de las ideas Libertexto

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The feminine plural noun cosas is stated prior to las que to let us know the antecedent.


No Antecedent:

Y las que te faltan por conocer.

And the ones that you still have to experience.

Caption 40, La Sucursal del Cielo Capítulo 1 - Part 10

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Interestingly, las que also refers to las cosas (the things) here, which came up one sentence prior in this conversation. 


El que, La que, Los que or Las que With Prepositions

Note that when the relative pronouns el que, los que, la que and las que are preceded by prepositions, they can be translated with a vast array of terms such as "which," "that," "when, "where," "who" or "whom," dpending upon what they refer to. Let's take a look at some examples where we have also highlighted the prepositions that accompany these relative pronouns. 


El material con el que fue construido

The material with which it was built

Caption 14, Paseando con Karen Bienvenidos a Parque Fundidora

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Madrid es una ciudad en la que se respira historia.

Madrid is a city where one breathes history.

Caption 19, Con Marta por Madrid Lavapiés y la corrala - Part 1

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Another possible translation in this example would be "in which."


Cada noche escribo en él las cosas por las que estoy agradecida.

Every night, I write in it the things that I'm grateful for.

Captions 42-43, Aprendiendo con Silvia Las emociones - Part 13

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Although "for which" could be an alternative, more formal translation, "that" is the more colloquial choice. 


Ha habido días en los que había más de treinta incendios activos,

There have been days on which there were more than thirty active fires

Caption 48, Soledad Incendios

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You probably inferred that "when" could substitute "on which" in this utterance. Let's see one more:


como una persona muy distinta a mí y con la que yo no podría tener una conversación distendida

as a very different person from me and with whom I wouldn't be able to have a relaxed conversation

Captions 54-55, Soledad Los prejuicios

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That's all for today. We hope that this lesson has helped you to better understand the somewhat tricky relative pronouns el que, la que, los que and las que and their different uses and translations, and don't forget to write us with your questions and comments.



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How to Say "Never" in Spanish

How do you say "never" in Spanish? Today's lesson will teach us a couple of different ways to say "never" in Spanish as well as some simple formulas and rules for using them. Are you ready?



The Spanish Word Nunca

The most common way to say "never" in Spanish is with the word nunca. Let's hear it in action:


¿Pero pantaloncitos calientes? ¡No, nunca!

But hot pants? No, never!

Caption 16, La Sucursal del Cielo - Capítulo 1

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Rules for Using Nunca in Spanish

Now that we know that nunca is the most common word for "never" in Spanish, let's learn a couple of formulas for using it.


1. Nunca + affirmative sentence 

Let's see some examples of this construction from our Yabla Spanish library:


Nunca he estado en China.

I have never been in China.

Caption 27, Carlos explica - El pretérito Cap 3: Perfecto compuesto II

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Juan nunca pone atención en clase.

Juan never pays attention in class.

Caption 20, Carlos explica - Los cinco sentidos

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Note that if there is an explicitly stated subject like Juan in the second example, it must be placed before the word nunca.


2. No + sentence + nunca

This way of saying "never" in Spanish entails a "double negative," which, in contrast to English, in Spanish is grammatically correct. Taking our previous two examples, we will now convert them to this double negative formula to express exactly the same thing:


Nunca he estado en China.

No he estado en China nunca.

Both mean: "I have never been to China."


Juan nunca pone atención en clase.

Juan no pone atención en clase nunca

Both mean: "Juan never pays attention in class."


Now, let's look at a couple of additional examples of this double negative formula, noting that within this construction, the word nunca can go pretty much anywhere as long as it comes after the verb.


Creo que este momento no lo voy a olvidar nunca.

I think I'll never forget this moment.

Caption 10, Tu Voz Estéreo - Laura

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Él todavía no ha salido nunca afuera.

He has still never gone outside [of it].

Caption 39, Animales en familia - Un día en Bioparc: Cachorro de leopardo

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The Spanish Word Jamás

Just like nunca, the Spanish word jamás also means "never" in Spanish but is generally considered more emphatic. To remember how to use this word correctly, we can simply substitute the word jamás for nunca in our aforementioned formulas, utilizing the same parameters. Let's see some examples:


Yo jamás te mentiría.

I would never lie to you.

Caption 28, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 7

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No se me hubiera ocurrido jamás.

It never would have occurred to me.

Caption 21, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 12

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Nunca Jamás

If you want to be even more emphatic, you can combine nunca and jamás to get nunca jamás, which means something like "never ever" and is commonly seen in songs, telenovelas (Spanish soap operas), and other dramatic scenarios. Let's take a look:


Nunca jamás sentí tanto dolor. -No, no, no, no

I have never ever felt so much pain. -No, no, no, no

Es un puñal clavado aquí en mi corazón

It's a dagger stabbed here in my heart

Captions 15-16, Victor Manuelle - Nunca Habia Llorado Así

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Que quedaste embarazada y nunca jamás lo volviste a ver.

That you ended up pregnant and you never ever saw him again.

Caption 50, Yago - 10 Enfrentamientos

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With these melodramatic examples, we hope that this lesson has helped you feel more confident expressing the idea of "never" in Spanish, and don't forget to write us with your questions and comments.


Articles of Clothing in Spanish

Do you know the names of articles of clothing in Spanish? Knowing what clothing items in Spanish are called might help you on your next Spanish quiz or, better yet, on that shopping spree on your next vacation to a Spanish-speaking country! Let's explore some clothing vocabulary in Spanish with lots of examples from our Yabla Spanish library.



How Do You Say "Clothing" in Spanish?

First, let's note that the most common way to talk about clothing in English is with the less formal noun "clothes," which is always plural. That said, the Spanish equivalent for "clothes" or "clothing" in Spanish is the noun la ropa, which is almost always used in the singular! Let's take a look:


Bueno, si tienes mucha ropa.

Well, if you have a lot of clothes.

Me encanta la ropa y soy adicta a los zapatos.

I love clothes and, I'm a shoe addict.

Captions 19-20, Ricardo - La compañera de casa

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However, on some, less formal occasions, primarily in Latin America, you may come across the plural form las ropas: 


vestidos básicamente con ropas de seda,

dressed basically in silk clothing,

Caption 33, Días festivos - La diablada pillareña

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Additional nouns for saying "the clothes" or "clothing" in Spanish in a general fashion include both la vestimenta and la indumentaria, whereas the noun la prenda (de vestir) describes an individual clothing "item" or "garment":


a esta prenda la llamamos "chompa",

we call this garment a "chompa" [jacket],

Caption 18, Ana Carolina - Lavandería

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Clothing Vocabulary in Spanish

Now, let's learn the names of some of the most common articles of clothing in Spanish, hearing most of them pronounced via clips from our Yabla Spanish library. For some items, we will provide several Spanish names since there is a lot of variation in how these items are said from country to country. 


Bathing suit: el traje de baño, el vestido de baño, el bañador, la malla


A mí, el vestido de baño porque ya saben, me gusta la playa.

For me, my bathing suit because, you already know, I like the beach.

Caption 41, Cleer y Lida - Juego de preguntas y respuestas

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Note that the term la malla refers to a women's swimsuit and is most commonly heard in Argentina:


Ay, Mili, pará, no tengo malla.

Oh Mili stop, I don't have a swimsuit.

Caption 35, Muñeca Brava - 9 Engaños

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Of course, the word "bikini" remains the same in Spanish:


Si hace calor... el bikini.

If it's warm... the bikini.

Caption 14, Un Viaje a Mallorca - Planificando el viaje

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Blouse: la blusa


Esta es una blusa que tiene estampado. 

This is a blouse that has a print.

Captions 36-37, Natalia de Ecuador - Vocabulario de prendas de vestir

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Cap: el gorro, la gorra

Both the masculine form el gorro and the feminine form la gorra can be used to describe a "cap" such as a baseball cap or snow hat/cap.


Esta parte de la gorra es azul.

This part of the cap is blue.

Caption 16, Luana explica - Los colores

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Un gorro de lana de color blanco.

A white wool hat.

Caption 16, Ana Carolina - Lavandería

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Dress: el vestido


Este vestido puede salir sobre unos cincuenta, sesenta euros. 

This dress could go for about fifty, sixty euros.

Caption 84, 75 minutos - Gangas para ricos - Part 15

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Gloves: los guantes


Los guantes, unos guantes rosaditos... -Sí.

The gloves, some pink gloves... -Yes.

Caption 52, Cleer y Carolina - De compras

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Hat: el sombrero

El sombrero is a more general term for all types of hats.


¡Mira qué bonito este sombrero!

Look how pretty this hat is!

Caption 46, Ariana - Mi Semana

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Jeans: el pantaló​n vaquerolos vaqueros, el jean/los jeans


unos vaqueros grises. 

and some grey jeans.

Caption 41, El Aula Azul - Conversaciones sobre fotos

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que cuando te mides un jean en un almacén dicen,

that when you try on some jeans at a store they say,

Caption 28, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 8

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Pajamas: el/la piyama, el/la pijama

Notice the alternative spellings for the nouns for "pajamas" in Spanish (one with a y and one with a j), and while both versions are used with the masculine article in Spain and South America, the feminine article is employed in the rest of Latin America. Furthermore, although it is prevalent to see them in singular, you may also run into their plural forms (pijamas/piyamas).


A la ropa de dormir en Latinoamérica la llamamos con el anglicismo piyama

In Latin America, we call sleepwear the anglicism "piyama" [pajamas],

Caption 11, Ana Carolina - Arreglando el dormitorio

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Pants: el pantalón, los pantalones

Interestingly, either the singular plural form of this noun can be used to refer to a pair of pants or simply "pants," as in the following two examples:


Necesito un pantalón negro. -OK.

I need some black pants. -OK.

Caption 8, Cleer y Carolina - De compras

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"Se me han roto los pantalones", por ejemplo.

"Se me han roto los pantalones" [My pants have ripped], for example.

Caption 69, Clase Aula Azul - Se involuntario

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Scarf: la bufanda, el pañuelo

While la bufanda usually describes the type of scarf one might wear to keep warm in the snow, el pañuelo refers to more of a bandana-type scarf:


Menos mal que llevaba una bufanda

Thank God I was wearing a scarf.

Caption 21, Aprendiendo con Zulbany - Piensa rápido

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¡Oh! ¿Y este pañuelo tan bonito?

Oh! And this really beautiful scarf?

Caption 66, Clase Aula Azul - La posesión

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Shirt: la camisa


Me gusta la camisa.

I like the shirt.

Caption 4, Extr@: Extra en español - Ep. 2: Sam va de compras - Part 6

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Shorts: los pantalones cortos


Algunos clubs permiten el uso de pantalones cortos o bermudas. 

Some clubs allow the use of shorts or bermudas.

Caption 64, Montserrat - El golf

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Skirt: la falda


Esta falda está muy larga. 

This skirt is too long.

Caption 46, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 3

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As you may have guessed, the Spanish word for "miniskirt" is la minifalda:


Ya admití suficiente con que se pusiera la corrompisiña esa de la minifalda.

I permitted enough with you putting on that corrupt miniskirt.

Caption 15, La Sucursal del Cielo - Capítulo 1 - Part 10

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Socks: las medias, los calcetínes

Let's hear the terms for "socks" in Colombia and other parts of Latin America vs. Spain:


Lo que acabamos de ver, en Colombia

What we just saw, in Colombia,

lo llamamos "medias", las "medias".

we call "medias" [socks], "medias."

¿En España? Son los "calcetines". -Los "calcetines". 

In Spain? They're "calcetines" [socks]. -"Calcetines."

Captions 39-41, Carlos y Xavi - Part 3 Diferencias de vocabulario entre España y Colombia

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If you are interested in more such differences, check out this series on pronunciation and vocabulary differences between Spain and Colombia


Sweatsuit: el chándal, el buzo, el jogging


Entonces no podemos olvidar el chándal tampoco.

Then we can't forget a tracksuit either.

Caption 62, Un Viaje a Mallorca - Planificando el viaje

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T-shirt: la camiseta, la remera


Andrea lleva una camiseta de manga corta de color blanco 

Andrea is wearing a white short-sleeved t-shirt

Caption 40, El Aula Azul - Conversaciones sobre fotos

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Suit: el traje


se vistió con su mejor traje

put on his best suit,

Caption 34, Aprendiendo con Carlos - El microrrelato

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Tank Top: la camiseta sin mangas, la camiseta de tirantesla musculosa


Te creo. -Bueno, me dio la musculosa para salir. 

I believe you. -Well, he gave me the tank top to go out.

Caption 51, Yago - 1 La llegada - Part 5

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Tie: la corbata


Qué linda corbata.

What a nice tie.

Caption 2, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 5 - Part 5

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Although the term la corbata typically refers to a necktie, there are many words to describe a bow tie in Spanish, including el moño, el corbatín, la pajarita, la lacita, la corbata de moño, and la corbata de lazo


Vest: el chaleco


tenemos que llevar siempre un chaleco reflectante 

we must always wear a reflective vest

Caption 56, Raquel y Marisa - Aprender a conducir

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Outerwear in Spanish

There are so many different Spanish words for "sweaters," "sweatshirts,"  "jackets," "coats," and other outerwear, and every country has their own way to talk about these articles of clothing in Spanish. In fact, some of the same Spanish terms are used to describe different items in different countries. Let's take a look.


Jacket: la chaqueta, la chamarra, la campera, la cazadora, la chompa

Even within the English language, it is sometimes a fine line between what constitutes a "jacket" vs. a "coat," which some people view as synonymous. That said, the above-referenced Spanish terms generally refer to something more sporty, casual, and/or lighter weight.


¡Una chaqueta de cuero! 

A leather jacket!

Caption 48, Extr@: Extra en español - Ep. 2: Sam va de compras - Part 2

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Coat: el abrigo, el chaqetón, la chamarra

The Spanish terms for "coat" might generally be thought of as describing a heavier/warmer garment:


Después me voy a poner el abrigo porque va a hacer frío. 

Later, I'm going to put on my coat because it's going to be cold.

Captions 22-23, Cristina - Naturaleza

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Blazer: el saco, la americana, la chaqueta


y así con, con saco y con corbata, ¿te imaginás el calor? 

and like that with, with a blazer and tie, can you imagine the heat?

Caption 37, La Sucursal del Cielo - Capítulo 2 - Part 2

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Raincoat: el chubasquero, el impermeable, el piloto, el sobretodo


Los días de lluvia llevábamos un chubasquero y botas de agua. 

On rainy days, we wore a raincoat and rain boots.

Captions 54-55, Aprendiendo con Silvia - Recuerdos de infancia

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Sweater: el jerseyel sué​ter, el pulóver, la chompa

Let's hear how to say "sweater" in both Spain and Colombia:


Eh... Se llama "jersey". -"Jersey".

Um... It's called a "jersey" [sweater]. -"Jersey."

Nosotros le decimos "suéter". 

We call it "suéter" [sweater].

Captions 44-45, Carlos y Xavi - Part 3 Diferencias de vocabulario entre España y Colombia

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Sweatshirt: la sudadera, el jersey, el sué​ter, el pulóver


mandé a hacer uniformes, sudadera y todo; ¿qué tal? 

I got uniforms made, a sweatshirt and everything; what do you think?

Caption 114, Club 10 - Capítulo 1 - Part 3

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Undergarments in Spanish

Now, let's hear how to say the general term for "underwear" or "undergarments" in Spanish before moving on to the many words for the more specific articles of clothing in Spanish in this category:


No, no es bombachitas. En todo caso es ropa interior.

No, it's not panties. In any case, it's underwear.

Caption 68, Muñeca Brava - 43 La reunión

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Bra: el brasierel corpiñoel sosténel sujetador


¿Van a dejar de usar brasier, ah? 

Are you going to stop wearing a bra, huh?

Caption 18, La Sucursal del Cielo - Capítulo 1 - Part 10

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Briefs: los calzoncillos, los calzones


entonces, ahí estaba yo, de nuevo en la clase de matemáticas,

[and] then, there I was, in math class again,

¡y esta vez en calzoncillos

 and this time, in my underwear!

Captions 48-51, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 7

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Panties: los calzoneslas bragas, las braguitas, la bombacha, los pantis


Así que ya te veo desfilando, en cualquier momento, con bombacha y corpiño.

So I see you modeling, any minute now, in panties and bra.

Caption 43, Muñeca Brava - 18 La Apuesta

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Footwear in Spanish

To conclude this lesson, we'll examine how to say the words for the more general "footwear" and "shoes" in Spanish prior to learning some more specific vocabulary:


Yo me dedicaba a vender calzado; tenía un almacén.

My job was selling footwear; I had a shop.

Captions 55-56, Imbabura - Paramédicos

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se convirtieron en un par de zapatos nuevos y relucientes. 

changed into a new, shiny pair of shoes.

Caption 29, Cleer - El cuento de los cuatro hermanos

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Boots: las botas


Y unas botas altas. -Sí. 

And some tall boots. -Yes.

Caption 23, Un Viaje a Mallorca - Planificando el viaje

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Flip-Flops: las chanclas


unas chanclas,

some flip flops,

Caption 12, Ariana - Mi Semana

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High Heels: los tacones


Me encantan los tacones

I love high heels.

Caption 57, 75 minutos - Gangas para ricos - Part 14

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Slippers: las pantuflas, las zapatillas


Y por aquí, no pueden faltar las pantuflas o babuchas,

And over here, you can't do without slippers or house shoes,

Caption 88, Natalia de Ecuador - Vocabulario de prendas de vestir

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Sneakers: las zapatillas, los tenis, los zapatos deportivos

Interestingly, the word for "slippers" in many Spanish-speaking countries, las zapatillas, means "the sneakers" in Spain. Now, let's listen to another word for "sneakers" or "athletic shoes" in Spanish:


los tenis

and tennis shoes.

Caption 38, Cleer y Lida - Juego de preguntas y respuestas

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That's all for today. To review clothing terms in Spanish, we recommend videos like Marta de Madrid - Prendas de ropa, Natalia de Ecuador - Vocabulario de prendas de vestir, and Ana Carolina's Lavandería and Salir de compras. We hope that this lesson has helped you to learn a lot of articles of clothing in Spanish, and don't forget to write us with your questions and comments.


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