Although the most common English translation for the Spanish preposition hasta is "until," like most Spanish prepositions, its meaning can vary in different contexts. Today's lesson will explore the four main definitions of the Spanish word hasta provided by Royal Spanish Academy as well as its various English translations.
According to the first definition, the Spanish preposition hasta can denote "a final limit in a trajectory of space or time." Possible translations for this use of hasta include "until," "up until," "up to," and "to." Let's take a look at this use via several subcategories.
The preposition hasta in Spanish can mean "up to" a certain point in time. Let's see some examples:
Eh... Trabajo hasta las dos
Um... I work until two,Play Caption
Hasta el momento, ella ha probado zanahoria, brócoli y papa.
Up until now, she has tried carrots, broccoli, and potatoes.
Captions 37-38, Ana Carolina Ejercicio de adverbios de tiempoPlay Caption
No llegaron hasta el final de la fiesta.They didn't arrive until the end of the party.
When used to talk about location, hasta means "up to that point" and might be translated with "up to" or simply "to":
Hay dos formas de llegar hasta Pasai Donibane: por mar o por tierra.
There are two ways to get to Pasai Donibane: by sea or by land.
Captions 29-30, Viajando con Fermín Pasajes (Pasaia) - Part 2Play Caption
Aquí lo que tenemos que hacer es meter un hisopo, pues hasta su buche.
Here what we have to do is to place a Q-tip, well up to his throat.Play Caption
The Spanish word hasta is often used along with que to form an adverbial phrase that means "until" (such moment as something else happens). Note that when the verb that follows hasta que refers to a habitual action or past event, it will be conjugated in an indicative tense. Let's see an example:
y lo tuvo con ella hasta que llegó la primavera.
and she had him with her until spring came.
Caption 41, Cleer El patito feoPlay Caption
On the other hand, when the subordinate clause following hasta que refers to a potential future event or is a command, the verb that follows will be in the subjunctive:
y tenemos que dejar que poche hasta que se quede bien blandita.
and we have to let it saute until it gets very soft.
Caption 41, La cocina de María Tortilla de patatasPlay Caption
For several more examples, check out Yabla's lesson on hasta que and hasta que no, which function similarly.
According to definition two, the Spanish preposition hasta can also describe a maximum quantity. Let's view a couple of examples:
En el mes me puedo gastar hasta doscientos euros...
During the month I can spend up to two hundred euros...
Caption 69, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 15Play Caption
Pesan hasta siete kilos, ocho kilos los machos adultos.
They weigh up to seven kilograms, eight kilos for adult males.
Caption 95, Animales en familia Un día en Bioparc: CoatísPlay Caption
This third and less common use of the Spanish preposition hasta to mean "not before" is primarily heard in Mexico and Central America. Let's take a look:
Terminará hasta mediodía.
He won't finish before noon.
In the fourth definition, the Spanish word hasta instead functions as an adverb to add emphasis or a feeling of surprise or disbelief, much like the English word "even":
¿Hamburguesas de aguacate? -Sí... Hasta miel de aguacate.
Avocado burgers? -Yes... Even avocado honey.
Captions 44-45, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 1Play Caption
Hasta se cree la mega estrella.
She even thinks she's the megastar.
Caption 54, X6 1 - La banda - Part 1Play Caption
Now that we know four different ways to use the Spanish word hasta, let's take a look at some of the many idiomatic expressions in which it appears, including at least five different ways to say goodbye in Spanish:
hasta luego: see you later
hasta pronto: see you soon
hasta la próxima: see you next time
hasta mañana: see you tomorrow
hasta la vista: until we meet again
A host of additional expressions with estar hasta mean "to be fed up":
estar hasta las narices (literally "to be up to one's noses")
estar hasta la gorra (literally "to be up to one's hat")
estar hasta arriba ("to have had it up to here")
estar hasta la coronilla (literally "to be up to one's crown")
Let's see this last one in context:
Muy bien, estaba hasta la coronilla.
Just great, I was fed up.
Caption 16, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 6 - Part 4Play Caption
Meanwhile, estar hasta el cuello (literally "to be up to one's neck") is equivalent to the English "to be up to one's eyeballs," or overwhelmed, while estar hasta en la sopa ("to be even in the soup") describes something or someone that seems omnipresent. And finally, let's look at a Spanish expression with hasta that can mean "that's all" or "that's it":
hasta aquí el vídeo de hoy.
that's all for today's video.Play Caption
On that note, we hope that this lesson has helped you to understand the different uses of the Spanish word hasta and some idioms that include it. Can you think of any more? We invite you to let us know with your suggestions and comments. ¡Hasta pronto!
Today's lesson will take us through some Spanish vocabulary that might come in handy to talk about el otoño (the autumn/fall) and some of the phenomena associated with esta estación (this season).
Let's start by taking a look at a quote from our Yabla Spanish library about el tiempo in autumn, which means "the weather" (rather than "the time") in this context:
Pero en primavera y en otoño, el tiempo es mucho mejor
But in spring and in fall, the weather is much better
Captions 16-17, Clara explica El tiempo - Part 1Play Caption
The fall season is typically characterized by more moderate temperaturas (temperatures) as well as viento (wind) and sometimes lluvia (rain) or niebla (fog) (although there might be some sol (sun) as well!). Let's look at these autumn weather words in context:
Pasame las llaves y llamá un taxi ante' que venga la lluvia.
Give me the keys and call a cab before the rain comes.
Caption 51, Yago 5 La ciudad - Part 9Play Caption
Ya está haciendo un poco de viento; ¿no te parece que hace frío? Sí, a pesar de que hace un hermoso sol.
It's a bit windy now; doesn't it seem like it's cold to you? Yes, in spite of the fact that it's beautifully sunny.
Captions 78-79, Sofy y Caro Entrevistar para un trabajoPlay Caption
Ten cuidado cuando conduzcas hoy porque hay mucha niebla y no se puede ver bien.
Be careful when you drive today because there's a lot of fog, and you can't see well.
Captions 17-18, Clara explica El tiempo - Part 2Play Caption
The videos Clara explica el tiempo - Part 1 and Clara explica el tiempo- Part 2 (Clara Explains the Weather- Parts 1 and 2) as well as Aprendiendo con Karen- El tiempo (Learning with Karen- The Weather) can help you learn even more ways to talk about the weather in Spanish.
While some Spanish-speaking countries like Colombia and Ecuador have less climatic variation due to their proximity to the equator, others experience the autumn season in different months than North America. For example, fall in countries like Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, etc. takes place from approximately marzo a junio (March to June), while Spain experiences the fall in the same months as in the United States: septiembre a diciembre (September through December), as demonstrated in this video about the months and seasons in Spanish by El Aula Azul:
En septiembre, empieza el otoño. En octubre, caen las hojas.
In September, the fall begins. In October, the leaves fall.
Captions 22-23, El Aula Azul Estaciones y MesesPlay Caption
And that brings us to las hojas (the leaves), which, along with their tendency to change colors, dry up, and fall off trees in the autumn, are arguably the most frequently-employed symbol of the fall season.
What other objects are associated with the fall? Let's take a look at a few:
¡Soy un espantapájaros!
I'm a scarecrow!
Caption 95, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 15Play Caption
¿Cuánto puede costar una cesta así en el mercado?
How much can a basket like this cost at the market?
Caption 121, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 11Play Caption
¿Adivináis qué animal come esta paja y este heno?
Can you guess what animal eats this straw and this hay?
Caption 6, Amaya Donkey DreamlandPlay Caption
Ahora, vamos con nuestro siguiente diseño de calabaza.
Now, we go on to our next pumpkin design.
Caption 64, Manos a la obra Papel picado para Día de muertosPlay Caption
What other foods do we associate with the autumn season?
Es época de quinoa, de la cosecha, de las arvejas tiernas, del maíz, que también ya acabamos de cosechar.
It's the season for quinoa, the harvest, sweet peas, corn, which we also just finished harvesting.
Captions 27-28, Otavalo Proyecto familiar Kawsaymi - Part 2Play Caption
Si hay un olor típico en el otoño es el de las castañas asadas.
If there is a typical smell in autumn, it's that of the roasted chestnuts.
Caption 24, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 1Play Caption
Las manzanas puedes hacer dulce de manzana, pie de manzana, torta de manzana,
[With] apples you can make apple jam, apple pie, apple cake,Play Caption
And speaking of apples, they can also be used to make sidra (cider) of both the alcoholic and non-alchoholic variety:
y la bebida más típica es la sidra de manzana.
and the most typical drink is hard apple cider.
Caption 57, Viajando con Fermín La Feria de Santo TomásPlay Caption
In this video, Fermín tells us in this about the Feria de Santo Tomás (Saint Tomas Fair), which takes place on the last day of autumn, December 21st, and is thought to be the first day of the Christmas season.
To continue on the theme of fiestas (holidays), let's talk about the Spanish terms for some fall celebrations in both the United States and Latin America:
Y en el interior le decimos, eh... Día de Muertos. Eh... Quizás tenga un poco de relación en la fecha con el Halloween de Estados Unidos,
And in [places] inside the country we call it, um... Day of the Dead. Um... Perhaps it's a little bit related with the United States's Halloween in respect to date,
Captions 69-70, Yabla en Yucatán Don Salo - Part 2Play Caption
And, in addition to Halloween and the Day of the Dead, we have, in November, the important North American holiday of Thanksgiving, which is called el Día de Acción de Gracias in Spanish.
Let's conclude today's lesson with a quick-reference review of the words we have learned:
el otoño (the autumn/fall)
la estación (the season)
el tiempo (the weather)
la temperatura (the temperture)
la lluvia (the rain)
el viento (the wind)
la niebla (the fog)
el sol (the sun)
hacer sol (to be sunny)
hacer viento (to be windy)
hacer frío (to be cold)
las hojas (the leaves)
el espantapájaros (the scarecrow)
la cesta (the basket)
la paja (the straw)
el heno (the hay)
la calabaza (the pumpkin)
la quinoa (the quinoa)
la cosecha (the harvest)
cosechar (to harvest)
el maíz (the corn)
las castañas asadas (the roasted chestnuts)
la manzana (the apple)
la fiesta (the holiday)
el Día de Muertos/el Día de los Muertos (The Day of the Dead)
el Día de Acción de Gracias (Thanksgiving)
And that brings us to the end of our lesson on useful Spanish vocabulary for the autumn season. We hope you've enjoyed it, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
In the first part of our lesson on comparative structures, we covered comparisons of inequality. However, what if we would like to talk about similarity? Part two of this lesson will deal with comparisons of equality as well as superlatives, and considering that 2020 has been uno de los años más difíciles para muchos (one of the hardest years for many people), superlative structures could definitely come in handy.
Let's start by using the Spanish equivalent of as ___ as (as good as, as fast as, etc.). We can use this structure with both adjectives and adverbs.
Oye, no, no es tan fácil como tú lo ves, ¿eh?
Hey, no, it's not as easy as you see it, huh?
Caption 21, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesa - Part 17Play Caption
Tampoco saliste con una mina tan finoli como ella.
You haven't dated a woman as elegant as her either.
Caption 18, Yago - 12 FianzaPlay Caption
Notice that we use tan rather than tanto before the adjective or adverb. Thus, in the previous examples, it would be a mistake to say tanto fácil or tanto finoli. We can, however, say tanto más or tanto menos fácil (as explained in part one of this lesson).
On the other hand, the similar structure tanto como is the Spanish equivalent of "as much as." In the following example, note that because tanto is an adverb, it is unmarked for gender and number.
Espero que hayáis disfrutado al menos
I hope that you have enjoyed at least
tanto como yo disfruto
as much as I enjoy
estando todos los días con vosotros.
being here every day with you guys.
Captions 76-78, Cómetelo - Crema de brócoliPlay Caption
Unlike the examples with adjectives and adverbs above, tanto must be marked for gender when used with nouns. We will therefore use tanto/s before masculine nouns and tanta/s before feminine nouns as follows:
Tiene tanto dinero como su hijo.
She has as much money as her son does.
Tiene tanta paciencia como tú.
She has as much patience as you do.
Tienes tantas hermanas como yo.
You have as many sisters as I do.
When talking about things (cosas) that are similar, we can employ this term as an adjective (marked for number and gender) to say that they are parecidas. On the other hand, to express that something is done in a similar way, we use the unmarked adverb: parecido, as in Juana y su hermana hablan parecido. And to top it all off, parecido is also a noun that indicates resemblance.
La [cultura] gitana es muy parecida a la cultura árabe.
Gypsy [culture] is very similar to Arab culture.
Caption 37, Europa Abierta - Jassin Daudi - Con artePlay Caption
Notice the use of the preposition a following the adjective parecida to indicate "to."
Now, let's look at parecido as a noun as it appears in this caption from Clase Aula Azul, which explains the use of the verb parecer:
Hablamos de parecidos físicos, ¿sí?
We're talking about physical similarities, right?
Se parece es como decir, es parecido, es similar, ¿mmm?
"Se parece" [It looks like] is like saying, it's alike, it's similar, hmm?
Captions 37-38, Clase Aula Azul - El verbo parecerPlay Caption
While we can use parecido or similar to describe similarities, what if the items being compared are exactly the same? When items are virtually indistinguishable, idéntico, igual, or mismo are suitable terms. Remember that these are adjectives and are therefore marked for number and gender, except for igual, which is gender neutral. It is worth mentioning that only el/la mismo/a or los/las mismos/as can come before the noun. Thus, if one has the same t-shirt someone is wearing, he or she might say the following:
Tengo la misma remera (I have the same t-shirt).
Tengo una remera igual (I have a t-shirt just like that).
Tengo una remera idéntica (I have an identical t-shirt).
Let's take a look at some additional examples:
Porque uno idéntico a este
Because one identical to this one
embarcó en el Titanic en mil novecientos doce.
embarked on the Titanic in nineteen twelve.
Captions 24-25, Málaga - Museo del automóvilPlay Caption
Si hay diez personas trabajando con los mismos medios y las mismas herramientas.
If there are ten people working with the same media and the same tools.
Caption 73, Lo que no sabías - Arte electrónicoPlay Caption
As a side note, the interesting expressions me da igual or me da lo mismo mean "it's all the same to me" or "I don´t really care":
Ya lo que digan me da igual
What people say doesn't matter to me anymore
Caption 22, Alejandro Fernandez - EresPlay Caption
Another keyword when it comes to making comparisons is como (like).
Juli, vas a quedar como una cobarde,
Juli, you're going to look like a coward,
como si te diera miedo.
as if it scared you.
Captions 44-45, Club 10 - Capítulo 1Play Caption
And you will definitely remember this comparative structure after listening to the Calle 13 song in this clip:
No hay nadie como tú
There is no one like you
Caption 29, Calle 13 - No hay nadie como túPlay Caption
Finally, we have the superlative forms with the following structures: el/los/la/las/lo + más + adjective:
La prueba de sonido es lo más importante quizás porque es la preparación, ¿no?
The sound check is the most important thing, maybe because it's the staging, right?
Caption 6, David Bisbal - Haciendo Premonición LivePlay Caption
Este es el aguacate más caro que hay en el mercado.
This is the most expensive avocado that there is on the market.
Caption 38, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesa - Part 1Play Caption
Note that there are a few irregular superlatives:
el mejor (the best)
el peor (the worst)
el mayor (the oldest)
For "the oldest," el más grande can also be used. While this is very common in some regions and can also mean "the largest," "the greatest," or "the biggest," it is important to remember that, as is the case with all irregular superlatives, mayor cannot be used in conjunction with más. Thus the sentence "Paul is the oldest in his class" can be translated as Paul es el más grande de su clase or Paul es el mayor de su clase but NOT Paul es el más mayor.
We hope that you have enjoyed our newsletter, y lo que es más importante (what matters most) is that you have learned a lot! Don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
Llevar (to take) and traer (to bring) are very similar verbs. Both refer to the action of moving objects from one location to another. Llevar is used when an object is being taken to a place other than where the person who is talking is. On the other hand, traer is used when an object is being transported towards the speaker. It sounds pretty straightforward, right? Well, it is, but deciding when to use llevar or traer in context is sometimes tricky. That's because in many cases there is only a subtle difference of meaning between these two verbs, and because both are used in many idiomatic expressions, and, finally, because in some cases they can be used as synonyms.
So let's start with the basic difference between llevar (to take) and traer (to bring). When Luciana and Julia save Valente from being beaten to death by some thugs, Luciana says:
Ayúdame, vamos a llevarlo a mi casa.
Help me. We are going to take him to my house.
Caption 3, El Ausente - Acto 2Play Caption
But when Guillermina finds that her Grandpa has fallen into a pit, she says:
Ya sé, abuelo.
I know, Grandfather.
Voy a traer la red de pescar para intentar subirte.
I'm going to bring the fishing net to try to get you up.
Captions 34-35, Guillermina y Candelario - Una película de terrorPlay Caption
When the direction of the movement is being stated in the phrase, it's possible to use traer or llevar to express the same idea, with just a subtle difference in meaning. In the next caption, we included "traer/to bring" between parentheses so you can compare:
They work hard
para llevar el producto del campo a la mesa.
to take the produce from the field to the table.
Captions 5-6, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesa Part 1Play Caption
Note that the only difference between the two options is the perspective from which the person is talking. With llevar, the person's perspective is from the field; with traer, the person's perspective is from the table.
You should also remember that llevar and traer are both transitive verbs, so they will always be accompanied by a direct object, or direct pronoun. If we add to that the inclusion of indirect objects or indirect pronouns, the many possible ways to combine all these elements can be a real challenge. We suggest you study the rules on how to correctly place and combine all these pronouns. You may also like to check out your conjugation tables, especially for traer, since it's an irregular verb. Study these examples too:
Julio trae el dinero para Raquel. | Julio lo trae para Raquel. | Él lo trae para Raquel. | Él se lo trae.
Julio brings the money to Raquel. | Julio brings it to Raquel. | He brings it to Raquel. | He brings it to her.
No olvides llevar el carro a mamá. | No olvides llevarlo a mamá. | No olvides llevárselo. | ¡Llévaselo!
Don't forget to take the car to mom | Don't forget to take it to mom. | Don't forget to take it to her. | Take it to her!
Now, for the good part: both llevar and traer are used figuratively in so many expressions that we are going to need a second part of this lesson to explore them. Let's just see a couple now.
Llevar and traer are used to express that something or someone has, contains, or wears something:
En español, todas las palabras tienen una sílaba fuerte.
In Spanish, all the words have a strong syllable.
Y muchas de ellas llevan tilde.
And many of them have a written accent.
Captions 50-51, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El AlfabetoPlay Caption
Me gusta llevar faldas normalmente, sobre todo en invierno.
I like to wear skirts usually, especially in winter.
Captions 6-7, El Aula Azul - Actividades DiariasPlay Caption
It's also correct to say Me gusta traer faldas ("I like to wear skirts"). Check out this one:
Por eso traen pantalones.
That's why they wear pants.
Captions 47-48, El Ausente - Acto 2Play Caption
You will find llevar and traer meaning "to have" or "to contain" when talking about food or recipes:
Le pusimos una pancetita y lleva pollo.
We put in some bacon and it has chicken.
Caption 92, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesa Part 9Play Caption
Le quitamos la posible arenita que pueda traer.
We remove the possible bit of sand that it might have.
Caption 68, Cómetelo - Crema de brócoliPlay Caption
We'll stop here to leave some for Part 2. Thanks for reading!
Welcome to our very basic lesson about gender in Spanish. How can we tell the gender of nouns in Spanish? Let’s look at the most general rule: Words that end in "a" are feminine, while those that end in "o" are masculine. Pretty easy, huh? Let's look at some examples:
Y la casa es súper bonita.
And the house is super nice.
Caption 86, Blanca y Mariona - Vida en generalPlay Caption
Since the word casa is a feminine noun, the speaker uses the definite feminine article la before the noun. Let's see another one:
El libro es tan bueno
The book is as good
Caption 21, Karla e Isabel - ComparativosPlay Caption
In this case, the speaker uses the definite masculine article el before the masculine noun libro. By the way, please feel free to check our beginner-level lesson about definite and indefinite articles in Spanish grammar.
The unfortunate thing, however, is that this simple rule is not always true, as our friend Arume proves when she correctly says "el tema" (the topic) and not "la tema," which would be incorrect.
Y bueno ahí surge ya el tema de tengo novio, no tengo novio.
And well, that's when the topic of whether you have a boyfriend or not comes up.
Caption 75, Arume - La Vida EscolarPlay Caption
Furthermore, in the first installment of our series on Andalusian farmers, "Del Campo a la Mesa," the eldest picker illustrates another exception when he says, correctly, "las manos" (the hands):
Pa' ganar cincuenta euros tienes que mover mucho las manos.
To be able to earn fifty Euros, you have to move the hands a lot.
Caption 29, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesaPlay Caption
And it's not just such exceptions but also some rules that can complicate the situation. For example, do you know why the Mexican band Café Tacuba’s lead singer says "el agua," using the masculine article "el" (the) instead of the feminine article "la" (the)?
El agua derramada está
The water is already spilled
Caption 17, Café Tacuba - Volver a comenzarPlay Caption
It’s not because agua is a masculine noun but rather because of a rule in Spanish that states that any feminine noun that begins with a stressed "a" should take the masculine articles (el and un) in its singular form in order to facilitate pronunciation (by avoiding two "a" sounds in a row). This is similar to the manner in which the indefinite article "a" in English changes to "an" before vowels.
You will note, however, that this rule does not apply to the plural forms, which maintain their feminine articles (which end in "s" rather than "a" and thus don't pose the same pronunciation challenge):
Ellos vinieron aquí, a las aguas de la Charca Larga,
They came here, to the waters of Long Pond,
y había muchos seres extraños.
and there were many strange beings.
Captions 42-43, Salvando el planeta Palabra - LlegadaPlay Caption
And, in cases in which the "a" sound is unstressed, the rule doesn't apply, either:
La aceituna que yo he recogido está aquí.
The olive[s] that I have harvested [are] here.
Caption 19, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesaPlay Caption
In conclusion, let’s just say that native Spanish speakers learn the gender of words by hearing and using them constantly in real situations and not by memorizing exceptions or wondering whether the word tristeza (sadness) feels more masculine or feminine. That said, the more we immerse ourselves in authentic Spanish, the more we, as learners, can begin to “intuitively” know the gender of nouns that we frequently encounter, including those that don’t follow the common pattern.
In any case, if you feel ready to explore some of the rules and exceptions of gender in Spanish, we invite you to take a look at our lesson about the gender of inanimate objects in Spanish. We hope that this brief introduction to gender in Spanish was useful, and please feel free to send us your suggestions and comments.