As a beginner Spanish student, the word bajo may well be among the first words one learns, typically as an adjective meaning “short.” However, like many words in Spanish, this word has a whole plethora of meanings and can additionally function as a preposition, adverb, noun, and even a verb!
Let’s start by examining the use of the word bajo as a preposition. Although its translation is almost always “under” or “below,” like its English equivalent, this could refer not only to physical location, but also to the state of being subject to some influence. Let’s take a look at the following examples from our Yabla Spanish library.
One possible meaning of the preposition bajo is "in a position below something else":
Pero no entiendo qué hace mi amiga un día de semana bajo este árbol tan maravilloso.
But I don't understand what is my friend doing on a weekday under this wonderful tree.Play Caption
Another, similar meaning of “bajo,” which also involves location, suggests that something is beneath the surface or covered by something:
Tengo aquí bajo mi almohada tu fotografía
I have your picture here under my pillow
Caption 20, La Oreja de Van Gogh - InmortalPlay Caption
Moving on to uses of the preposition bajo not involving location, like “under” in English, bajo could also express the concept of being less than:
Congelando lo que es la punta de la botella en una solución que está a diez o quince grados bajo cero.
Freezing the tip of the bottle in a solution that is ten or fifteen degrees below zero.
Captions 33-34, Europa Abierta - Champagne en AndalucíaPlay Caption
The Spanish preposition bajo could additionally mean "in accordance with" or "subject to the terms of," for example, some agreement:
Algunos clientes bajo contrato, le pre-maduramos la fruta.
[For] some customers under contract, we pre-ripen the fruit.
Caption 99, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesaPlay Caption
And finally, although we have only touched on some of its many nuanced meanings, we’ll take a look at an example in which the preposition bajo entails being managed or governed by something:
Para su información, todo el personal de servicio está bajo mi mando, ¿sí?
For your information, all the service staff is under my authority, right?
Caption 49, Muñeca Brava - 3 Nueva CasaPlay Caption
Now, let’s look at bajo as an adjective. Its most common translations are “short” or “low,” both in terms of height or level and in reference to intensity or morality. Here are some examples from the Yabla Spanish video library:
Y es muy gracioso porque Pedro es todo lo contrario de Carolina.
And it's very funny because Pedro is totally the opposite of Carolina.
Es bajo, es gordo...
He's short, he's fat...
Captions 32-33, El Aula Azul - Mis PrimosPlay Caption
Desde chiquito el bajo mundo conocía
Since he was a child, he knew the underworld
Caption 4, La Secta - ConsejoPlay Caption
Se manifestaban porque el sueldo era muy bajo.
They were on strike because their salary was very low.
Caption 33, Con ánimo de lucro - CortometrajePlay Caption
As an adverb, bajo could also be translated as “low” in some cases (for example, when describing a helicopter flying “low”) or “softly” or “quietly” when referring to one’s speech:
¡Que le quede claro! -¡Shhhhh, habla bajo!
Let that be clear to you! -Shhhhh, speak quietly!
Caption 42, Yago - 7 EncuentrosPlay Caption
Much more straightforwardly, as a noun, the word bajo refers to the musical instrument, the bass:
Entonces yo dije: "Yo... yo puedo tocar... Yo puedo tocar el bajo."
So, I said, "I... I can play... I can play the bass."
Caption 50, Carli Muñoz - NiñezPlay Caption
And finally, it is worth noting that bajo is the first person singular, present tense conjugation of the verb “bajar” (to go or come down or get off or out).
Ya está, la comida... -Sí, sí, sí, ya, yo ya bajo.
It's ready, the food... -Yes, yes, yes, now, I'm coming down now.
Caption 72, Muñeca Brava - 44 El encuentroPlay Caption
We hope that this lesson has shed light on some of the ways the word bajo can function as a preposition - in addition to a noun, verb, adjective or adverb! If you would like to see many additional examples in context, simply enter the word bajo in the search bar at the top of the Videos page to find matches in the transcripts of the Yabla Spanish library. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Direct and indirect object pronouns in Spanish are used to substitute indirect and direct objects. This lesson explores the proper way to do these substitutions using examples from our catalog of videos.
The direct and indirect object pronouns in Spanish are identical except for the third-person singular and plural (him, her, it, them) and the second-person formal (you) forms:
|Subject pronouns||Direct object pronouns||Indirect Object pronouns|
él, ella, usted
|lo, la|| |
|le||him, her, you|
|you (plural familiar)||os||you (plural familiar)||os||you (plural familiar)|
|ellos, ellas, ustedes||they, you (plural formal)||los, las||them, you (plural formal)||les||them, you (plural formal)|
So, the pronoun me is used to substitute either the direct object, as in:
A Adícora me trajo el viento.
The wind brought me to Adícora.
Caption 7, Adícora, Venezuela - Darío y el KitesurfingPlay Caption
Or the indirect object, as in:
Mi papá había ido a Nueva York
My father had gone to New York
en un viaje de negocios y me trajo unos discos.
on a business trip and brought me some records.
Caption 1, Carli Muñoz - NiñezPlay Caption
In the previous example, me is the indirect object, while unos discos (some records) is the direct object, which is a plural masculine noun that according to our table is substituted by los (them). So, to substitute both objects you must say: me los trajo (he brought them to me).
Now, the pronoun te is used to substitute either the direct object:
Y de este lado sólo te revuelca,
And from this side it only pushes you around,
pero del otro lado te come.
but from the other side it eats you.
Captions 37-38, Antonio Vargas - Artista - ComicPlay Caption
or the indirect object:
Bueno y por eso te traje las aspirinas.
Well, and that's why I brought you the aspirins.
Caption 43, Muñeca Brava - 2 VenganzaPlay Caption
In the previous example, te is the indirect object, while las aspirinas (the aspirins) is the direct object, which is a plural feminine noun that according to our table is substituted by las (them). So, to substitute both objects you must say: te las traje (I brought them to you).
For the third person of singular (him, her, it & formal "you"), though, Spanish uses lo, la for direct object and le for indirect object. So, for a feminine noun as cicatriz (scar) in the direct object position we use la (in genderless English we use "it"):
Porque tiene una pequeña cicatriz en el brazo que sólo yo conozco
Because he has a small scar on his arm that only I know about
porque se la hizo jugando conmigo.
because he got it playing with me.
Captions 41-42, Yago - 10 EnfrentamientosPlay Caption
For a masculine noun as pollo (chicken) in the direct object position we use lo (again, English uses "it"):
Ya tenemos listo aquí nuestro pollo.
We already have our chicken ready here.
Y lo decoramos con un poco de ajonjolí y cebollín.
And we decorate it with a bit of sesame seeds and chives.
Captions 17-18, [Bears in the Kitchen] Osos en la cocina - Pollo asiáticoPlay Caption
Take note that lo and la are also used for usted (the formal you) in the direct object position. Lo is used for a noun in the direct object position that designates a male person (Morgan):
Morgan, la Señorita Victoria
Morgan, Miss Victoria
está enterada de su regreso y lo espera en el escritorio.
is aware of your return and awaits you in the study.
Caption 29, Muñeca Brava - 18 - La ApuestaPlay Caption
Or la for a noun in the direct object position that designates a female person (let's say Ms. Gonzalez):
Señora Gonzalez, el doctor la verá a las diez.
Ms. Gonzalez, the doctor will see you at ten.
On the other hand, the indirect object uses a different pronoun le (him, her, it & formal "you"). So, for a masculine noun like muchacho (boy) in the indirect object position we use le:
Otro muchacho que nunca escuchó
Another boy that never listened
Los consejos que su madre le dio
To the advice his mother gave him
Captions 40-41, La Secta - ConsejoPlay Caption
And we would also use le if we were talking about una muchacha (a girl):
Otra muchacha que nunca escuchó los consejos que su madre le dio
Another girl that never listened to the words of advice his mother gave her
Equally, we use le if we are addressing someone formally:
Usted que nunca escuchó los consejos que su madre le dio
You who never listened to the words of advice your mother gave you
Got it? Now a test. How do you substitute not only the indirect object (muchacho, muchacha, usted), but also the direct object los consejos (the words of advise) in the previous examples? This is how:
Otro muchacho que nunca escuchó los que su madre le dio
Another boy that never listened to the ones his mother gave him
Otra muchacha que nunca escuchó los que su madre le dio
Another boy that never listened to the ones his mother gave her
Usted que nunca escuchó los que su madre le dio
You who never listened to the ones your mother gave you
It's interesting to note how English can't use "them" to replace "the words of advise" in this particular construction because the wording is odd (it's somehow odd in Spanish as well). So let's simplify the example (the indirect object and indirect pronouns appear in bold):
Mamá dio unos consejos al muchacho / Mamá se los dio.
Mom gave the boy some words of advise / Mom gave them to him.
Mamá dio unos consejos a la muchacha / Mamá se los dio.
Mom gave the girl some words of advise / Mom gave them to her.
Mamá dio unos consejos a usted / Mamá se los dio.
Mom gave you some words of advise / Mom gave them to you.
As you can see, it was now possible to use "them" to replace "the words of advise" in English. But did you notice that Spanish used se instead of le to replace the indirect object this time! Why is that? Well, that's because in Spanish there's a special rule for combining pronouns: when le(s) and lo(s)/la(s) would end up next to each other in a sentence you must use se instead. So you can never say Mamá le los dio, you must say Mamá se los dio. We will learn more about this rule and continue with the plural forms of the direct and indirect pronouns in Part II of this lesson.
For all the animal lovers out there, here is a collection of Spanish expressions related to pets and their owners.
The word for pet in Spanish is mascota, yes, similar to the English word "mascot." The only difference is that mascota can be used to talk about an animal kept as a companion (a pet), or to refer to a special person, animal or thing used to symbolize a sports team, company, organization or other group (a mascot). Of course, the word mascota meaning "pet" can also be applied to a person, as in the following example:
...todos eran mucho más viejos que yo.
...they were all much older than me.
Eh... y, como que, yo era como la mascota.
Uh... and, so like, I was like the pet.
Captions 64-65, Carli Muñoz - NiñezPlay Caption
Now, in English the word "pet" is also a verb that means to stroke an animal affectionately. But in Spanish there is only one verb you can use instead of "to pet," or "to stroke," or even "to pat." That verb is acariciar (to caress). The following example is not about animals, but it's about el alma (the soul), a word that shares with the word animal a common etymological root: the Latin anima.
Acaricia mi alma, vuélvete la luna
Caress my soul, become the moon
Caption 14, Shaila Durcal - Vuélvete LunaPlay Caption
Let's talk about the distinction between animales domésticos (domestic animals) and animales salvajes (wild animals). When you tame an animal it becomes domesticated or tamed, right? Spanish uses the verbs domesticar (to domesticate), domar (to tame), which come from the Latin domus (house). Sometimes, Spanish also uses the verb dominar (to dominate), which comes from the Latin dominus (the latin word for master or owner, "the lord of the house"). Ah, but if you want to talk about taming a horse, there's a specific word for that: desbravar (to break in, literally "to take out the braveness").
Another very common word is amansar (to make docile, meek). So it's common to hear people saying about a pet that es manso(a) or mansito(a) to indicate that it's gentle, friendly.Un perro que no muerde (a dog that doesn't bite) es mansito!
Uy, buena, Pepino.
Oh, good one, Pepino.
-Es mansito. -Tan bonito el gatito.
-He's tame. -Such a pretty kitty.
Captions 57-58, Kikirikí - AnimalesPlay Caption
Talking about bites and dogs, there is a famous saying in Spanish, perro que ladra no muerde,which means, literally, "a barking dog never bites."
Pero perro que ladra no muerde, querida.
But, his bark is worse than his bite, dear [literally, "...the dog that barks doesn't bite"].
Caption 65, Muñeca Brava - 3 Nueva CasaPlay Caption
It may be a little disrespectful, but some people may use the verb amansar to refer to the action of calming down a person, or even appeasing the gods:
Y tener poderes místicos para amansar las "tulucus".
And having mystical powers to tame the "tulucus".
Caption 26, NPS No puede ser - 1 - El concursoPlay Caption
What if an animal is not mansito? That means it's fiero (fierce), feroz (ferocious), salvaje (wild), or maybe even feral (feral). A famous one is el lobo feroz, (the Big Bad Wolf) yes, the one that tried to eat Caperucita roja (Little Red Riding Hood) and los tres cerditos (the three little pigs). Can you blame him? Have you ever had un hambre feroz?
Si pones la mesa que no sea para dos,
If you set the table, it shouldn't be for two,
Porque somos como catorce con un hambre feroz
Because we are like fourteen people with a ferocious hunger
Captions 3-4, Mexican Institute of Sound - AlocatelPlay Caption
One last expression before saying goodbye. It's important to walk your dog everyday, right? Agreed, but never ever ever say something like caminar a tu perro. That makes no sense in Spanish. The correct expression is sacar a pasear a tu perro (to take the dog out for a walk). The Argentinian band Los Pericos (the Parrots) have a song entitled Fácil de engañar (Easy to Be Fooled) in which a former lover is compared to a pet owner:
Me tenías en la jaula, me sacabas a pasear
You had me in a cage, you took me out for walks
Caption 8, Los Pericos - Fácil de EngañarPlay Caption
By the way, if you are not easily fooled, you probably like the saying that goes:
A otro perro con ese hueso.
Don't try that one on me [literally, "To another dog with that bone"].
Caption 31, Muñeca Brava - 8 TrampasPlay Caption
That was two last expressions. The thing is, there are so many interesting words about pets and owners! We should revisit the subject again in the future.