Let's continue our lesson on the use of verbal periphrases. In the first part of this lesson, we reviewed examples that combine conjugated verbs with infinitives. Now it's time to learn periphrases that combine conjugated verbs with the Spanish forms of the verb known as gerundios and participios.
Verbal periphrases that use the gerundio are used to express the passing of an action. They combine a conjugated auxiliary verb and a gerundio. Remember, the English gerund is the -ing form of the verb, but the Spanish gerundio is the -ndo form. Perhaps the easiest and most common example of these periphrases is the one that uses the verbestar (to be) as the auxiliary verb:
Estoy cursando las últimas dos materias del último trimestre.
I am taking the last two courses of the last trimester.
Captions 3, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Viviana Reyes
Y con esta blusa, vamos a ver, ya estamos armando el... el disfraz.
And with this blouse, let's see, we're already putting together the... the costume.
Captions 18, Un disfraz - En el mercado - Part 1
However, you can use other verbs as well. The most used are the verbs andar (to go),empezar (to start), llevar (to carry), salir (to go out), etc. Here's an interesting example using the reflexive verb quedarse (to stay, to remain):
No, él se queda aquí trabajando.
No, he stays here working.
Caption 1, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesa - Part 3
Here is an example with the verb salir (to go out):
Y además salió diciendo que para él era un orgullo que yo estuviera en el país.
And he also appeared saying that he was very proud that I was in the country.
Caption 62, Biografía - Natalia Oreiro - Part 9
Ya después me pasé a otra banda en la que... en la que volvimos a hacer covers.
Later on, I changed to another band in which... in which we did covers again.
Caption 36, Willy - Entrevista - Part 3
On the other hand, periphrases that use the participio are usually meant to express the result of an action. They combine a conjugated auxiliary verb with a participio. Remember that the Spanish participio is the -ado, -ido, -to, -so, -cho forms of the verb (and their feminine and plural counterparts). Here is our first example using the auxiliary verb quedarse (to stay):
Se queda perfectamente pegado.
It remains perfectly stuck.
Caption 32, Tecnópolis - Ciencia en casa - Part 1
Compare this example using the verb quedarse and participio with the previous one that uses quedarse and gerundio. Do you get the difference in use and meaning between the two?
Let's review a few more examples of periphrases using participio. You can use the verbtener (to have) as auxiliary verb:
Es verdad que nosotros tenemos instaladas videocámaras en los pasillos
It's true that we have video cameras installed in the hallways
Caption 12, Club de las ideas - Si yo fuera director - Part 1
Or you can use the verb llevar (to carry):
Estos paquetes llevan puestos desde el miércoles pasado.
These packages have been set since last Wednesday.
Caption 4, La Champiñonera - El cultivo de champiñón - Part 2
Or the verb dejar (to leave):
Y le dejo esto puesto, ¿eh?
And I leave this on, huh?
Caption 46, 75 minutos - Gangas para ricos - Part 17
To finish this lesson, compare these two examples of periphrases: one uses the gerundio and the other uses the participio. Which is which? Can you understand the difference in meaning? We are sure you do!
Me tengo que ir. Te dejo escrita la lista de invitados. | I have to go. I leave written the guest list for you [I'm leaving the guest list written out for you].
Me tengo que ir. Te dejo escribiendo la lista de invitados. | I have to go. I leave you writing the guest list [I'm leaving you to write the guest list].
Thank you for reading!