Let's continue reviewing examples of phrases that combine prepositions, articles and pronouns. In the previous lesson we talked about combining the preposition con (with) with the indefinite articles (el, la, los, las) and the pronoun que (that, which): con la que, con el que, con los que, con las que (with whom or with which). Let's see the examples, because in real context these phrases can be quite tricky.
Les preguntaron cómo debería ser la escuela
They were asked the question of what the school
con la que ellos sueñan.
that they dream of should be like.
Captions 6-7, Club de las ideas - La escuela que queremosPlay Caption
We can try a more literal translation just to see how Spanish works: "what the school of/with which they dream should be like." Here's another example:
No me parecía el tipo de gente con el que yo me quería involucrar.
They didn't seem to be the kind of people I wanted to get involved with.
Caption 81, Arturo Vega - Entrevista - Part 2Play Caption
Do you want a literal translation? Here it is: "they didn't seem to be the kind of people with which I wanted to get involved."
It seems that Spanish and English are more parallel when using the plural forms:
Estos espacios recrean un capítulo histórico
These spaces recreate a historic chapter
con los que el coriano convive a diario.
with which the Corian resident coexists daily.
Caption 38, Coro, Venezuela - La Zona ColonialPlay Caption
...y para beneficiar las comunidades con las que trabajamos.
...and to benefit those communities with whom we work.
Caption 48, De consumidor a persona - Short FilmPlay Caption
Now let's see how to combine el que, la que, los que, las que with two similar prepositions: por and para. Understanding the difference between these two is a constant challenge, even for advanced learners, so you can never study them too much!
...aquí están las puertas abiertas para el que quiera trabajar.
...here the doors are open for whomever wants to work.
Caption 38, Circo Infantil de Nicaragua - Learning the TradePlay Caption
...por el que transitan trece millones de clientes al año.
...through which thirteen million customers pass per year.
Caption 14, Los Reporteros - Crecen los robos en tiendasPlay Caption
Esa es buena para la que fuma el puro.
That one is good for the one who smokes cigars.
Caption 44, 75 minutos - Gangas para ricosPlay Caption
Y ésta es la razón por la que cuando se piensa en un nombre
And this is the reason why when one thinks of a name
que contribuya a...
that contributes to...
Captions 22-23, El Instituto Cervantes - Director del InstitutoPlay Caption
Existe el metro y el autobús
There is the subway and the bus
para los que tienes que comprar billetes.
for which you have to buy tickets.
Captions 69-70, Blanca - Cómo moverse en BarcelonaPlay Caption
De las etapas por las que pasan los conjuntos...
Of the stages that groups go through...
Caption 74, Arturo Vega - Entrevista - Part 3Play Caption
Parece mentira que haya tanta vida en este lugar. ¡Qué felicidad!
It's unbelievable that there's so much life in this place. So much happiness!
Captions 11-12, Café Tacuba - MediodíaPlay Caption
One of the first Spanish words we learn is hay, that odd but ever so useful incarnation of the verb haber that means both "there is" and "there are." Hay dos gatos ("there are two cats"), hay una casa ("there is a house"). Wow, what a simple language!
And then somewhere along the line they told us about the subjunctive, where, even though the there's usually no difference in English, the verb in Spanish is completely different if there exists any sense of uncertainty or doubt. Wow, this might be an impossible language!
Well, haya is where our friend hay meets our nemesis, the subjunctive. Like hay, haya also means "there is / there are", but it is used when the subjunctive is called for. Café Tacuba introduces doubt when it begins the lyric above with "It seems impossible" (Parece mentira- literally "It seems like a lie") so that the phrase that follows utilizes haya instead of hay.
"It seems impossible that there is so much life in this place. What happiness!"
In De consumidor a persona we find a discussion of "Fair Trade" commerce in which haya is used to express possibilities (not certainties):
Que no haya explotación infantil, que haya igualdad entre hombres y mujeres...
That there is no child exploitation, that there is equality between men and women...
Captions 36-37, De consumidor a persona - Short Film - Part 5Play Caption