Don't you just want 2020 to be over? Without a doubt, this year has been quite challenging, especially due to everything that has occurred as the result of the coronavirus. In fact, 2020's Spanish Word of the Year is one of the terms most associated with this awful virus. Let's reveal this year's tragic winner.
Yes, pandemia (pandemic) is 2020's Spanish Word of the Year. Do we really have to explain why? Our friend Fermin sums it all up in a very simple phrase:
Esta maldita pandemia del coronavirus.
This damn coronavirus pandemic.Play Caption
It is important to say, however, that in contrast to the English word "pandemic," which can function as both an adjective and a noun, in the Spanish language, pandemia is only a noun, whereas the adjective is pandémico / pandémica.
Most of the words on this list of runners-up for 2020 Spanish Word of the Year are associated with the coronavirus pandemic. However, at the end of this list, we have also included a word (a name, actually) that represents yet another of the many sad events that have occurred this year. Let's take a look.
Hoy les voy a contar sobre mi cuarentena en casa.
Today I'm going to tell you about my quarantine at home.
Caption 4, El coronavirus - La cuarentena en EcuadorPlay Caption
Los tres primeros días del confinamiento
The first three days of confinement,
tuvimos sensaciones muy extrañas.
The first three days of confinement, we felt very strange feelings.
Captions 7-8, El coronavirus - Confinamiento en España - Part 2Play Caption
The Diccionario de la Lengua Española (DLE) states that the word desinfectante is an adjective. Let's see it in action:
La segunda tarea que realizo es rellenar el gel desinfectante,
The second task I perform is refilling the sanitizing gel,
que se encuentra ubicado en tres posiciones distintas:
which is found in three different locations:
Captions 16-17, Sergio - Socorrismo y COVID-19Play Caption
However, throughout Latin America, the word desfinfectante is also used as a noun:
También recuerda ocupar desinfectante para mano,
Also remember to use hand sanitizer
que tenga por lo menos unos [sic] sesenta por ciento de alcohol.
that has at least sixty percent alcohol.
Captions 16-17, El coronavirus - Cómo protegersePlay Caption
Las medidas sanitarias que utilizo son:
The sanitary measures that I use are:
la mascarilla y desinfectarme las manos.
the mask and sanitizing my hands.
Captions 12-13, Sergio - Socorrismo y COVID-19Play Caption
Y una gran crisis a nivel sanitario, económico y social.
And a great health, economic and social crisis.
Caption 60, El coronavirus - Introducción y vocabularioPlay Caption
From Kobe Bryant to Sean Connery, this year, the world has lost some of its most beloved people. In fact, the Spanish-speaking world has lost one of its most iconic figures: Diego Armando Maradona, and the death of the football/soccer superstar has been deeply felt throughout the world.
Si yo fuera Maradona, nunca me equivocaría
If I were Maradona, I would never make a mistake
Si yo fuera Maradona, perdido en cualquier lugar
If I were Maradona, lost anywhere
La vida es una tómbola de noche y de día
Life is a raffle [lottery] by night and day
La vida es una tómbola y arriba y arriba
Life is a raffle and up and up
Captions 3-6, Manu Chao - La Vida TómbolaPlay Caption
That's all for today. What do you think of the Spanish Word of the Year 2020? Do you agree with this choice? Can you think of a better word? Please, feel free to share with us your comments and suggestions, and let's hope 2021 brings us less tragedy and more joy.
Despite the old saying that "Las comparaciones son odiosas" (Comparisons are odious), the truth is that they are often necessary. Whether you need to decide on a vacation destination, select a present for a loved one, or weigh the pros and cons of any situation, comparisons will be a part of your decision-making process. That said, let's learn some useful language for that purpose.
Unlike English, Spanish does not modify adjectives with the addition of suffixes (e.g. the English -er and -est) for comparative purposes. Instead, adjectives are accompanied by comparative structures to indicate equality, inequality, or difference in degree between one or more people, ideas, or things. Since there is plenty to learn on this topic, this lesson will deal with inequality, while part two will cover comparisons of equality and superlatives.
For comparisons of inequality, the word that specifies what the comparison is about will be preceded by más (more) or menos (less). One might compare qualities (adjectives), ways of doing something (adverbs), or even nouns as in the sentence: La canasta roja tiene más manzanas que la verde (The red basket has more apples than the green one). Let's take a look at some common comparative structures involving adjectives, adverbs, and nouns, and some examples of each:
La vida a esta altitud se hace más difícil que en el frondoso pinsapar.
Life at this altitude becomes more difficult than in the dense Spanish fir forest.
Caption 64, Tecnópolis - Sierra de las nievesPlay Caption
Este libro es menos interesante que el otro.
This book is less interesting than the other one.
Caption 72, Karla e Isabel - ComparativosPlay Caption
As you may have inferred from these examples, the comparative particle que is the equivalent of than in English. In addition, the video in our second example above introduces several comparative structures with examples and is thus worth viewing in conjunction with this lesson.
Les inyectaba hormonas para que crecieran más rápido.
She would inject them with hormones so that they would grow faster.
Caption 45, Kikirikí - AnimalesPlay Caption
Note that, in this case, the comparative particle que is not present since the second term of the comparison is not mentioned. In addition, remember that, although the adverb rápidamente does exist, we often use rápido as an adverb as well as an adjective in the same way as the English word fast, depending upon whether it modifies a noun or a verb in a sentence.
As we saw in the introduction, this structure can also be used with nouns. In this case, it is worth mentioning that while, according to traditional English usage rules, "fewer" should be used for countable objects while "less" should be employed with singular mass nouns (i.e. salt), this distinction does not exist in Spanish. That said, menos will be used for both countable and uncountable nouns in Spanish.
Ten en cuenta que los productos en tamaño familiar,
Take into account that family-sized products,
sean de lo que sean,
whatever they are,
generan menos residuos por unidad de producto.
generate less waste per product unit.
Captions 51-53, 3R - Campaña de reciclajePlay Caption
Since the Spanish verb tener años (literally "to have years") is used to express the idea of someone being a certain age, the expression Tengo más años que mi hermana (literally "I have more years than my sister") is equivalent to saying "I am older than my sister." The following example is similar:
Yo tengo un año menos que tú.
I am a year younger than you.
Caption 12, Clara y Cristina - SaludarPlay Caption
Although the position of the noun in these examples is different, they demonstrate the additional point that prepositional object pronouns like mí and ti cannot be used in comparatives as the second object of comparison (immediately after que). For example, while in English, one can say either "My sister is younger than I am" or "My sister is younger than me," Mi hermana es más joven que mí is unacceptable in Spanish, while Mi hermana es más joven que yo is the correct way to express this.
Sometimes, the difference between the objects, people, or ideas being compared is so big or so small that formulas that include intensifiers such as mucho/muchísimo/tanto + más/menos or mitigators like un poco/poquito + más/menos can help to express this.
Y eso también lo habéis comprado más barato de lo normal.
And that also you have bought cheaper than what's normal.
Pero muchísimo más barato, ochenta por ciento más barato, una cosa así.
But way cheaper, eighty percent cheaper, something like that.
Captions 14-15, 75 minutos - Gangas para ricosPlay Caption
No es tanto más grande que yo.
She's not that much older than me.
Caption 31, Muñeca Brava - 7 El poemaPlay Caption
De Los Cabos sí queda un poquito más lejitos,
From Los Cabos, it's a little bit further,
un poquito más de dos horas.
a little bit over two hours.
Captions 73-74, Alan x el mundo - Mi playa favorita de México!Play Caption
The parallel comparative structure, cuanto más + adjective/adverb, más/menos, is also useful in Spanish. The common English expression, "The sooner, the better," for example, translates as: Cuanto antes, mejor.
Cuanto más sucia, menos le[s] pagáis. -Claro.
The dirtier it is, the less you pay them. -Of course.
Caption 81, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesaPlay Caption
A few adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative forms and don't fall into the typical patterns using más/menos + adjective/adverb + que:
Adjective: buen/a (good) Comparative: mejor (better)
Adjective: mal/a (bad) Comparative: peor (worse)
Es una buena cantante (She's a good singer).
Es mejor cantante que Mariana (She is a better singer than Mariana).
Es un mal alumno (He is a bad student).
Es peor alumno que Juan (He is a worse student than Juan).
Interestingly, when the adjectives mejor/peor describe how good or bad one is at something, their forms are irregular. However, when referring to good and evil, their regular comparative forms come into play:
Es más malo que el diablo.
He is more evil than the devil.
The following adverbs, however, have only an irregular comparative:
Adverb: bien (well) Comparative: mejor (better)
Adverb: mal (badly) Comparative: peor (worse)
María canta mejor que su hermana.
María sings better than her sister.
Let's conclude with some additional examples of regular and irregular comparatives from our Yabla video library:
Tres aspirinas. -Bueno, tomá algo más fuerte que te haga mejor.
Three aspirins. -Well, take something stronger that makes you better.
Caption 61, Muñeca Brava - 43 La reuniónPlay Caption
Mal. Peor que la semana pasada.
Bad. Worse than last week.Play Caption
That's all for this first part of our lesson on comparatives. We hope it has been clear, and don't forget to send us your questions, comments, and suggestions. ¡Hasta la próxima!
In the first part of this lesson, we focused on the difference in perception in English versus Spanish when it comes to expressing the concept of "liking." Although in English, the subject of a sentence (the person, place, thing, or idea who performs the action of the sentence's verb) is perceived to "perform the action" of "liking" onto the object of the sentence (the receiver of the action, or "what is being liked"), in Spanish, the opposite is true. Let's review this concept with a simple example:
Me gustan mucho las ciudades.
I really like cities.
Caption 58, Carlos y Cyndy - Uso del Voseo en ArgentinaPlay Caption
In English, "I" is the subject and "cities" is the object because "I" am the person who performs the action of liking upon "cities." In Spanish, on the other hand, las ciudades (the cities) are the subject that are thought to "cause" the implied object "yo" (I) to like them. As this functions similarly to the English verb "to please," it is useful to keep in mind the alternative translation "Cities really please me" when thinking about this and other sentences with gustar.
Armed with this information, let's explore how to create and understand Spanish sentences with this verb. First off, how do we express in Spanish the English concept of who or what is "doing the liking"? In other words, how would one say, "I like" or "you like" or "they like," etc.? In order to do this, Spanish employs the following indirect object pronouns with the verb gustar as follows:
-(A mí) me gusta/n: I like.
-(A ti) te gusta/n: You like.
-(A él/ella/usted) le gusta/n: He/She/You like(s).
-(A nosotros/as) nos gusta/n: We like.
-(A vosotros/as) os gusta/n: You (all) like.
-(A ellos/ellas/ustedes) les gusta/n: They like/You (all) like.
Let's take a look at some examples:
Y aquí tengo una blusa que me gusta.
And I have here a blouse that I like.
Caption 6, Ana Carolina - Salir de comprasPlay Caption
Muy bien, ¿te gusta esa música?
Great, do you like that music?
Caption 63, Carlos y Cyndy - Comentario sobre Muñeca BravaPlay Caption
A nosotras nos gustan los colores del arcoíris.
We like the colors of the rainbow.
Caption 10, Español para principiantes - Los coloresPlay Caption
Note that, while in the third example, A nosotras was included before nos gustan, this is completely optional, and we could have written simply, Nos gustan los colores del arcoíris (We like the colors of the rainbow) to mean exactly the same thing. In fact, all such "a phrases" (a mí, a ti, a vosotros, etc.) indicated in parentheses above serve to add emphasis but do not change the meaning of sentences with gustar.
Now that we have learned how to indicate or know who or what is "doing the liking," let's focus on how to conjugate the verb gustar, which we will do in accordance with "what is being liked." Let's revisit the previous examples, as well as their alternative translations, to better understand this:
Y aquí tengo una blusa que me gusta.
And I have here a blouse that I like.
ALTERNATIVE TRANSLATION: And I have here a blouse that pleases me
Muy bien, ¿te gusta esa música?
Great, do you like that music?
ALTERNATIVE TRANSLATION: Great, and does that music please you?
A nosotras nos gustan los colores del arcoíris.
We like the colors of the rainbow.
ALTERNATIVE TRANSLATION: The colors of the rainbow please us.
Notice that, since "what is being liked" is the subject that performs the action in Spanish, in the aforementioned examples, we see gustar conjugated in the third person singular (gusta) in the cases where the subject is singular (esa músical"that music" and una blusa/"a blouse") and third person plural (gustan) in the cases where the subject is plural (los colores del arcoíris/"the colors of the rainbow"). Similarly, the verb "to please" is conjugated in accordance with said subjects in English.
What if, on the other hand, "what's liked" comes in the form of a verb's infinitive? In that case, the third person singular form of gustar should be utilized:
Y... aparte de... de la música, me gusta patinar.
And... apart from... from music, I like to skate.
Caption 14, Zoraida - Lo que gusta hacerPlay Caption
While in all of the aforementioned examples, the verb gustar has been conjugated in either third person singular or plural, there are cases in which the subject calls for a diffrent conjugation. Let's take a look:
I like you.
-Tú también me gustas mucho.
-I like you a lot too.
Captions 44-46, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 4Play Caption
ALTERNATIVE TRANSLATION: You please me. Just because. -You please me too.
Since the subject "being liked" is tú (you), gustar is conjugated in the second person singular: gustas, and the alternative translation "You please me" can again help us to grasp this construction. Let's examine a couple of additional examples:
A este chico le gusto mucho.
That guy likes me a lot.
ALTERNATIVE TRANSLATION: I please that guy a lot.
A ustedes les gustamos mucho.
You guys like us a lot.
ALTERNATIVE TRANSLATION: We please you guys a lot.
As always, the verb gustar is conjugated in agreement with the Spanish sentences' subjects: yo/"I" (in the first person singular gusto) and nosotros/"we" (in the first person plural gustamos).
Let's conclude with one final example:
Y la directora de la biblioteca me dijo
And the director of the library told me
que el texto había gustado mucho.
that [people] had liked the text a lot.
Captions 48-49, Aprendiendo con Carlos - El microrrelatoPlay Caption
ALTERNATIVE TRANSLATION: and the director of the library told me that the text had pleased [people] a lot.
Once again, gustar has been conjugated in the third person singular as había gustado (this time in the past perfect) in agreement with what is being liked: el texto (the text). However, the absence of an indirect object pronoun to specify who or what is "doing the liking" gives us the essence that the text is generally pleasing, in other words: people liked it.
We hope that these lessons have helped to shed some light on how to use/understand the verb gustar, which might initially seem daunting to English speakers. That's all for today, and don't forget to leave us your comments and suggestions.
As the U.S. elections are right around the corner, we think now is the perfect time to learn some useful election vocabulary.
In presidential elections, the citizens of a country votan por (vote for) the candidate of their choice. In a referendum, however, voters will votar a favor de / en contra de (for or against) a particular decision.
No sé si voy a votar por Manuel u Oscar
I don't know if I am going to vote for Manuel or Oscar
en las elecciones presidenciales.
in the presidential elections.Play Caption
As we all know, political parties run campaigns to persuade citizens to vote for them. We also know about the promises that politicians make when están en campaña (they are campaigning).
"La mejor campaña" dijo, "es la del pueblo."
"The best campaign" he said, "is that of the people."
Caption 24, Andrés Manuel López Obrador - En campañaPlay Caption
Interestingly, there is an expression with the word campaña that is not related to presidential or marketing campaigns. Ponerse en campaña means "to start working on something" or "become active."
Está todo claro. -Nos ponemos hoy mismo en campaña.
Everything is clear. -We'll start working on that today.
Caption 69, Yago - 10 EnfrentamientosPlay Caption
We can find some compelling examples of electoral promises in Felipe Calderon's Campaign cuando se postulaba como presidente de México (when he was running for president of Mexico) back in 2006.
Igualdad de oportunidades para todos,
Equal opportunity for everyone,
una democracia efectiva, que le dé sentido a nuestra vida cotidiana
an effective democracy that gives meaning to our everyday lives,
y finalmente desarrollo sustentable.
and finally, sustainable development.
Captions 59-61, Felipe Calderón - PublicidadPlay Caption
Unsurprisingly, these promises are pretty much the same in each contienda electoral (presidential race) and are often expressed at debates televisados (televised debates) before the veda electoral (election silence), the period in some countries prior to the election in which it is forbidden to show any sort of political propaganda.
Pero no sólo a los PANistas,
But not only the PANistas,
como espero que sea el candidato de Acción Nacional
since I hope he'll be the candidate for Acción Nacional
en la próxima contienda presidencial de dos mil seis.
in the next presidential race in two thousand six.
Captions 71-73, Felipe Calderón - PublicidadPlay Caption
While in some countries, voting is mandatory (sufragio obligatorio), and a fine is imposed if one does not ejercer el derecho al voto (exercise one's right to vote), in countries like the U.S. or Mexico, it is optional (sufragio voluntario), and campaigns are thus conducted to encourage people to vote. Tu Rock es votar was a commercial created to persuade young people to participate in los comicios (the elections) in Mexico's 2006 presidential race. A similar campaign, as Armando explains, also enjoyed success in the U.S.:
Y lo habían hecho funcionar muy bien, y habían inscrito a
And they had made it work very well, and they had registered
más de millón y medio de jóvenes
more than one and a half million young people
para votar en el proceso electoral norteamericano.
to vote in the American election process.
Y ayudaron a, entre muchos otros esfuerzos,
And they helped to, among many other efforts,
Captions 20-23, Tu Rock es Votar - ArmandoPlay Caption
The ways in which we cast our votes may also differ. Particularly in these times of COVID-19, some countries may opt for an electronic vote (voto electrónico) or mail-in voting over the traditional ballot box (urna), which brings us to the saying that el futuro del país se decidirá en las urnas (the future of the country will be decided at the ballot box). And, you may be surprised to hear Argentinians and Uruguayans speak about el cuarto oscuro (literally "the dark room"). Mind you, there is no connotation of darkness or dishonesty in this expression, which is simply the name of the voting booth in those nations.
Voting is a right and a responsibility, so we should always stay informed and carefully think it through before weighing in on who will be in charge, or, as Armando puts it:
Y es elegir a quien va a tomar las riendas de este país.
And that is to choose who is going to take the reins of this country.
Caption 84, Tu Rock es Votar - ArmandoPlay Caption
We hope you've enjoyed this lesson, and don't forget to vote! Oh, and leave us your comments and suggestions.
Do you know how to say goodbye in Spanish? Believe it or not, there are many different ways to say goodbye in Spanish. In this lesson, we will review some of the standard terms you can use as well as other alternative ways of saying goodbye in Spanish slang. Let's take a look.
If you want to know the most standard way of saying goodbye in Spanish, adiós is your go-to term. Let's hear how to pronounce it:
Caption 50, Cita médica - La cita médica de CleerPlay Caption
Bueno, mucho gusto, Ana. -Mucho gusto.
Well, nice to meet you, Ana. -Nice to meet you.
Captions 67-68, Conversaciones en el parque - Cap. 3: ¿De quién es esta mochila?Play Caption
The preposition hasta (usually translated as "until" or "even" in English) is quite useful when we want to say bye to someone. While the following expressions are not as literal as adiós, people use them often when they want to say goodbye in Spanish. The idea here is, "Let's meet at some point in the future." Let's take a look:
Así que, ¡nos vemos muy pronto!
So, see you very soon!
See you later!
Captions 83-84, Amaya - Mi burro PepePlay Caption
¡Adiós, amigos de Yabla, hasta pronto!
Bye, friends of Yabla, see you soon!
Caption 51, Ariana - EspañaPlay Caption
Gracias por su atención y hasta la próxima.
Thank you for your attention, and see you next time.
See you later.
Captions 74-75, Carlos explica - Las preposiciones 'por' y 'para'Play Caption
Hasta mañana, Ivo. -Chau, mi amor. -Chau.
See you tomorrow, Ivo. -Bye, my love. -Bye.
Chau, papá. -Chau.
Bye, dad. -Bye.
Captions 79-80, Muñeca Brava - 43 La reuniónPlay Caption
Bueno, os esperamos por Madrid.
Well, we await you in Madrid.
¡Hasta la vista!
Captions 91-92, Marisa en Madrid - Parque de El RetiroPlay Caption
Are you wondering how to say bye in Spanish in the shortest possible way? Look no further. These slang terms, taken from the standard Italian manner of saying goodbye (ciao), are the words you're looking for. Let's see how to pronounce chao and chau:
Bueno... Nos vemos en la casa, chao.
OK... See you at home, bye.
Caption 53, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 9Play Caption
...porque ahora tengo un compromiso. Claro.
...because now I have an appointment. [Is that] clear?
Chau, Andrea. -Chau.
Bye, Andrea. -Bye.
Captions 21-22, Muñeca Brava - 2 VenganzaPlay Caption
Ha sido un placer estar con vosotros.
It has been a pleasure being with you.
Nos vemos. Un saludo.
See you. A greeting.Play Caption
OK, take care.Play Caption
Solamente quería saber si usted estaba vivo todavía.
I just wanted to know if you were still alive.
Good luck, Magoo.
Captions 36-37, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 1Play Caption
In this lesson, we will learn how to describe people in Spanish using the verb ser (to be). In particular, we'll focus on five different uses of the verb ser that you can use to identify and describe people. Let's take a look.
Eh... Luis, ella es mi mamá, mamá, él es Luis.
Um... Luis, this is my mom, Mom, this is Luis.
Y ella es mi abuela Carmen.
And this is my Grandma Carmen.
Captions 18-19, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 4Play Caption
It's worth mentioning that the example above shows a very common way to introduce people in Spanish.
Es un hombre que se dedica a lo que yo hago.
He's a man who devotes himself to what I do.
Caption 61, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 4Play Caption
Paul es estadounidense, de los Estados Unidos.
Paul is American, from the United States.
Caption 16, Carlos explica - Geografía y gentiliciosPlay Caption
Mi padre es arquitecto
My father is an architect
Caption 25, Leif - El Arquitecto Español y su ArtePlay Caption
In particular, when we refer to essential traits, such as height, weight, and physical appearance.
Es bajo, es gordo.
He's short, he's fat.
Caption 33, El Aula Azul - Mis PrimosPlay Caption
Alguien que es delgado tiene poco peso.
Someone who is skinny doesn't weigh much.Play Caption
Carolina tiene treinta y cinco años
Carolina is thirty-five years old
pero parece que tiene veinte.
but she looks like she is twenty.
Es muy guapa.
She's very pretty.
Captions 2-4, El Aula Azul - Mis PrimosPlay Caption
Ellos son muy majos. Mi prima Marta es muy simpática.
They are very nice. My cousin Marta is very nice.
Caption 8, El Aula Azul - Mi familiaPlay Caption
Ricardo es muy... es muy tranquilo, ¿viste?
Ricardo is very... he's very calm, you know?
Caption 84, Biografía - Natalia OreiroPlay Caption
Porque mi mamá es una persona muy difícil.
Because my mom is a very difficult person.
-Eso a mí no me importa.
-That doesn't matter to me.
Caption 20, Yago - 10 EnfrentamientosPlay Caption
That's it for today. Can you describe someone you know using the verb ser? We invite you to try it out and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions. ¡Hasta la próxima!
Do you ever feel like practicing your Spanish over the phone? In this lesson, we would like to share with you the most important verbs you need to know when making or talking about a phone call. Also, we will show you the words you can use if you are wondering how to answer the phone in Spanish.
This is probably the most important verb when you want to indicate that you are making a call. Let's see some useful sentences.
When you are about to call someone:
Un momento, voy a llamar por teléfono.
One moment, I'm going to call [them].
Caption 6, Ariana - Cita médicaPlay Caption
When you want to say that you called someone:
Cuando llamé por teléfono, era para hablar con Lucio.
When I called on the phone, it was to talk to Lucio.
Caption 23, Yago - 14 La peruanaPlay Caption
When you want to indicate that someone called someone:
La primera vez que tu papá me llamó, no fue a la casa.
The first time your dad called me, it was not to the house.
Caption 42, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 5Play Caption
Of course, when you call someone, you expect an answer. Let's see this verb in action.
Disculpa, estaba en una reunión y no pude responder tu llamada.
Sorry, I was in a meeting and I couldn't answer your call.
You can also use the verb contestar (to answer) in this situation:
Que pena, discúlpame.
I'm sorry, excuse me.
Tengo que contestar esta llamada.
I have to answer this call.
Captions 8-9, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 3 - Part 1Play Caption
The example above also provides us with another very useful noun: llamada (a call).
By the way, do you know how to answer the phone in Spanish? In English, we say 'hello' but what's about in Spanish? There are several options:
Literally, bueno means 'fine' or 'well'. However, in this context, you can take bueno as a simple 'hello'. This way of answering the phone is very common in Mexico.
This is the Spanish equivalent of 'hello'.
Literally, this means 'yes'. It is also a very normal way of answering the phone in Spanish.
The translation of this is 'tell me'. A very common way of answering the phone in Spain.
This way of answering the phone is very popular in Colombia. It works as a simple 'hello'.
Some people prefer to answer the phone according to the time of the day so you can say buenos días (good morning), buenas tardes (good afternoon) or buenas noches (good night).
This is the verb you use when you need to get off the phone.
When you want to tell someone that you need to go:
Oye, tengo que colgar porque vamos a comer.
Listen, I have to hang up because we're going to eat.
Captions 56-57, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 8Play Caption
When you want to say that someone hung up on you or someone else:
Una mina llamó por teléfono a tu celular.
A girl called your cell phone.
Elena atendió, ella preguntó por vos y entonces Elena le dijo,
Elena answered, she asked for you and then Elena said to her,
"Who is it?"
Y la mina colgó.
And the girl hung up.
Captions 43-45, Yago - 11 PrisiónPlay Caption
From the example above, you can also see that the verb atender (to respond) is another verb you can use instead of responder (to answer). Also, keep in mind that when talking about a smartphone you use the word celular throughout Latin America and the word móvil in Spain. If you prefer, you can also use the word teléfono (telephone).
Of course, you talk over the phone so if you want to express that action, you can say it like our friend Silvia from El Aula Azul:
Estoy hablando por teléfono.
I'm talking on the telephone.
Yo hablo por teléfono.
I talk on the telephone.
Captions 49-50, El Aula Azul - Actividades diarias: En casa con SilviaPlay Caption
A phone call is about listening to someone else so this is a very important verb especially when you want to make sure the other person is able to listen to you.
Me puedes escuchar?
Can you hear me?
You can also use the verb oir (to hear) in this context:
How are you?
Y ahora que te oigo, de maravilla.
And now that I hear you, wonderful.
Captions 33-35, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 3 - Part 13Play Caption
And that's it for today. Are you ready to make a phone call in Spanish? We hope so. And don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions.
Do you know how to say "winter" or "summer" in Spanish? Do you know how to pronounce the seasons in Spanish? Let's review the four seasons of the year in the language of Cervantes.
Let's start this lesson with a quick overview of the Spanish seasons:
invierno | winter
primavera | spring
verano | summer
otoño | autumn or fall
1. How do you say "season" in Spanish? The answer is "estación." Its plural form is "estaciones" (seasons).
2. All seasons except "primavera" are masculine nouns. Also, keep in mind that you usually need definite articles next to the seasons. Let's take a look at the singular and plural forms of the Spanish seasons:
el invierno | los inviernos
la primavera | las primaveras
el verano | los veranos
el otoño | los otoños
3. Lots of countries through the Americas don't have four seasons. Instead, they may have rainy and dry seasons. In this case, you may hear the word "temporada" instead of "estación":
...si ya entramos en la temporada de lluvias.
...if we already entered the rainy season.Play Caption
Let's start with the following clip where you can listen to our friend Clara saying the four seasons in Spanish:
Un año tiene cuatro estaciones:
A year has four seasons:
primavera, verano, otoño e invierno.
spring, summer, fall and winter.
Captions 11-12, Clara explica - El tiempoPlay Caption
Let's practice a little bit more with the following examples for every single season.
En diciembre, empieza el invierno.
In December, the winter starts.
Caption 25, El Aula Azul - Estaciones y MesesPlay Caption
...en esta época que tenemos... que es primavera.
...during this season that we have... which is spring.Play Caption
By the way, we also have a lesson about spring vocabulary that you'll want to read.
Estaba precioso, en otoño con las hojas en el suelo.
It was beautiful in the fall with the leaves on the ground.Play Caption
Un día dijimos, es verano, no hacemos nada,
One day we said, "It's summer, we're not doing anything,
vamos, cogemos el coche y nos vamos.
come on, let's take the car and go."
Captions 26-27, Blanca y Mariona - Proyectos para el veranoPlay Caption
Also, make sure to check our lesson about summer vocabulary.
Do you know how to say "yellow" or "purple" in Spanish? Get ready to learn how to write and say the names of the colors in Spanish.
Let's take a look at this list of the primary colors in Spanish.
Even though there are millions of colors out there, most of the time we use only a limited number of colors in our daily life. The following list features the names of the most frequently used colors in Spanish and English.
- amarillo (yellow)
- anaranjado or naranja (orange)
- añil or índigo (indigo)
- azul (blue)
- blanco (white)
- dorado (golden)
- escarlata (scarlet)
- fucsia (fuchsia)
- gris (gray)
- marrón or café (brown)
- morado (purple)
- negro (black)
- plateado (silver)
- rojo (red)
- rosa or rosado (pink)
- violeta (violet)
Now, it's time to learn how to say the colors in Spanish.
Recorta un cuadro de papel amarillo de cinco centímetros.
Cut out a five centimeter yellow square from yellow paper.Play Caption
anaranjado or naranja
Adentro, son de color anaranjado.
Inside, they are orange-colored.Play Caption
By the way, do you know how to say "orange" (the fruit) in Spanish? The answer is "naranja"!
Ay, me encanta tu camiseta azul.
Oh, I love your blue shirt.
Caption 3, Español para principiantes - Los coloresPlay Caption
Mi perro pequeño es blanco.
My small dog is white.Play Caption
...y el negro, donde se tira lo orgánico.
...and the black one, where the organic [waste] is thrown away.
Caption 7, Rosa - ReciclarPlay Caption
El verde, donde va el vidrio.
The green one, where the glass goes.
Caption 5, Rosa - ReciclarPlay Caption
Mi cocina es de madera de color marrón.
My kitchen is (made) of brown-colored wood.
Caption 23, Ariana - Mi CasaPlay Caption
Keep in mind that some people prefer to use to word "café" instead of "marrón" when referring to the color "brown."
Predominan los colores verde, morado.
The colors green, purple, predominate.
Caption 46, Viajando con Fermín - Dunas de MarbellaPlay Caption
It is also quite common to use the adjective "púrpura" when talking about the color purple.
El rojo carmesí, que es un rojo frío.
The Crimson Red, which is a cool red.Play Caption
Let's finish this lesson with a little quiz. Can you provide the English word for each one of the seven colors of the rainbow in Spanish? Try it out!
1. rojo = ???
2. naranja or anaranjado = ???
3. amarillo = ???
4. verde = ???
5. azul = ???
6. añil = ???
7. violeta = ???
Did you get them all? If you didn't, you can always go back and check out the list we provided at the beginning of this lesson with the Spanish colors in alphabetical order.
That's it for today. We hope you enjoyed this lesson and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions.
The coronavirus is one of the greatest challenges humankind has ever faced. Because of that, we are being bombarded with words such as "virus," "disease," "quarantine," and "pandemic." But, do you know how to say all those words in Spanish? In this lesson, we will review some of the most important nouns associated with the current coronavirus. But first, let's take a closer look at the word coronavirus in Spanish.
In Spanish, the word coronavirus is a masculine noun made of two words: corona (crown) and virus (virus). However, keep in mind that coronavirus is just one word so there's no need for spaces or hyphens between the words that make up this noun.
Apart from that, it is worth mentioning that the word coronavirus in Spanish is the same in both the singular and the plural. Let's take a look:
El coronavirus es un virus contagioso
Coronavirus is a contagious virus
Los coronavirus son virus contagiosos
Coronaviruses are contagious viruses
From the example above, you can also see that the word virus in Spanish is the same in the singular and plural. In fact, this word belongs to a group of nouns ending in 'S' or 'X' that are the same in the singular and plural in Spanish.
With that being said, let's take a look at some of the words that you need to keep in mind in the context of the coronavirus.
For talking about coronavirus, here are some of the most common nouns. Let's take a look.
Vivimos en tiempos de crisis.
We live in times of crisis.
Caption 3, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 2Play Caption
Mirá, ni siquiera uso el alcohol como desinfectante.
Look, I don't even use alcohol as a disinfectant.
Caption 81, Muñeca Brava - 18 - La ApuestaPlay Caption
In this caption, we also highlighted another very used word nowadays: alcohol (alcohol).
Enfermedad (illness, disease)
Por una enfermedad o por un trastorno.
Due to an illness or due to an imbalance.
Caption 50, Raquel - Visitar al MédicoPlay Caption
Se controla que no tienen ninguna enfermedad.
They check [to make sure] that they don't have any disease.
Caption 60, Rosa - Laguna Fuente de PiedraPlay Caption
Aquí está nuestro mejor amigo: el jabón.
Here's our best friend: soap.
Caption 18, Ana Carolina - Artículos de aseo personalPlay Caption
Another term commonly used when talking about the masks people use to protect their mouths and noses is "tapaboca" or "tapabocas".
Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS)
This is the Spanish name for the World Health Organization (WHO)
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization officially declared the coronavirus a pandemic. The Spanish term for pandemic is pandemia. Keep in mind that there is a difference between epidemia (epidemic) and pandemia (pandemic). While the former relates to the spread of a disease in a country, the latter refers to the spread of a disease throughout the world.
El mundo se enfrenta ahora a una pandemia sin precedentes.
The world is now facing an unprecedented pandemic.
Caption 12, El Coronavirus - Introducción y vocabularioPlay Caption
The word "prueba" is probably the best one for the test that people take in order to find out if they have coronavirus. However, some people prefer to use similar terms such as "test" or "muestra".
According to several experts, even in the most optimistic of scenarios, many economies will be heading to a recession after the coronavirus crisis is over.
...que fue cuando en España entró la recesión en el sector de la construcción.
...which was when in Spain the recession in the construction sector began.
Caption 5, Leif - El Arquitecto Español y su ArtePlay Caption
Teletrabajo (remote working)
"El coronavirus es un virus contagioso".
"The coronavirus is a contagious virus."
Caption 27, El Coronavirus - Introducción y vocabularioPlay Caption
There are many more words that are used in the context of the coronavirus disease. However, if you want to follow the news in Spanish, there is a good chance of coming across some of the terms we just reviewed. Please, take the necessary protection during this difficult time and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions.
How do you say "math" in Spanish? This is a question even native speakers ask themselves. The reason is that there are two terms that people use to say "mathematics" in Spanish. Let's find out which term you should use and explore some of the most basic math terms in Spanish.
Matemática and its plural form matemáticas are the two valid terms you can use when talking about the noun that refers to "the science of numbers, forms, amounts, and their relationships." Let's see a couple of examples:
Vos te puedes equivocar en la matemática también.
You can make mistakes in math too.
Caption 19, Yago - 11 PrisiónPlay Caption
Esta mañana he resuelto el problema de matemáticas.
This morning I solved the math problem.
Caption 55, Lecciones con Carolina - Participios irregularesPlay Caption
Yo tenía que responder exámenes de matemáticas.
I had to answer math tests.
Caption 34, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 7Play Caption
There are a couple of things worth mentioning. First of all, keep in mind that the plural form matemáticas tends to be used more frequently than the singular form. Second of all, you don't need to use capital letters for any of these two terms. Now, let's review some useful vocabulary related to math in Spanish.
Let's see how to say the most basic math operations in Spanish:
Addition (Adición or suma)
Substraction (Sustracción or resta)
And how about the verbs that you use to indicate those basic operations? Let's listen to our friend Ester from El Aula Azul:
Tienes números, tienes que sumar,
You have numbers, you have to add,
tienes que restar, multiplicar, dividir.
you have to subtract, to multiply, to divide.
Captions 4-5, El Aula Azul - Piensa rápidoPlay Caption
Now, let's see how to express these operations with some examples:
1 +1 = one plus one (uno más uno)
2 - 1 = two minus one (dos menos uno)
2 x 2 = two times two (dos por dos)
4 ÷ 2 = four divided by two (cuatro dividido dos)
There are many math terms we use every day even when we are not talking about mathematics. Let's look at some of these terms:
Mi escultura es la solución a una ecuación.
My sculpture is the solution to an equation.
Caption 25, San Sebastián - Peine del vientoPlay Caption
Y ¿cuál es la temperatura promedio en tu pueblo?
And what's the average temperature in your town?
Caption 39, Cleer - Entrevista a LilaPlay Caption
Producimos un doce coma seis por ciento más de residuos que la media Europea.
We produce twelve-point-six percent more waste than the average of Europe.
Caption 29, 3R - Campaña de reciclajePlay Caption
Ya ven uno y uno es igual a tres
Now you see one and one equals three
Caption 10, Jeremías - Uno y uno igual a tresPlay Caption
Otra cosa im'... importante que tienes que calcular
Another im'... important thing that you have to calculate
además de todo ese movimiento.
in addition to all that movement.
Captions 64-65, El teatro. - Conversación con un doble de acción.Play Caption
Los números cardinales pueden ser simples o compuestos.
Cardinal numbers can be simple or compound.
Caption 11, Carlos explica - Los Números: Números CardinalesPlay Caption
How many question words in Spanish are you familiar with? Do you know how to write a question in Spanish? Asking questions is one of the most important skills you need to master in the language you are learning. In this lesson, we will learn the most important interrogative words in Spanish. However, before we explore those words, let's discuss a couple of things about asking questions in Spanish.
'Pregunta' is how you say the word 'question' in Spanish. 'Pregunta' is a feminine noun and its plural form is 'preguntas'. Let's practice the pronunciation of this term:
Kevin, la pregunta es:
Kevin, the question is:
Caption 13, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 1Play Caption
Los voy a dejar con cuatro preguntas.
I am going to leave you with four questions.Play Caption
Do you know how to write a question in Spanish? Let's take a look at the basic structure of a question in Spanish.
To begin with, you need to stick to the rules of Spanish punctuation. Because of that, when you write a question in Spanish you need to remember that question marks are always double-sided. In other words, you need to start the question with an opening question mark (¿) and end it with a closing one (?):
¿Cómo es Japón?
What's Japan like?
¿Qué te gusta de Japón?
What do you like about Japan?
Captions 69-70, Clase Aula Azul - Pedir deseosPlay Caption
Let's start with simple questions. Believe it or not, for these kinds of questions your intonation is what matters the most. You basically make Yes/No questions by transforming a statement into a question. The Spanish question structure for these kinds of questions is the following:
¿ + (subject) + conjugated verb + (additional information) + ?
Please note that the terms in parenthesis are optional. Let's see a couple of examples:
A Pedro le gusta comer pizza. (Pedro likes to eat pizza.)
¿A Pedro le gusta comer pizza? (Does Pedro like to eat pizza?)
For negative questions, you just need to place a "no" before the conjugated verb.
No quieres estudiar. (You don't want to study.)
¿No quieres estudiar? (Don't you want to study?)
Go ahead and play the following clips so you can hear the intonation of the following Yes/No questions. Notice how the pitch of the speaker's voice gets higher at the end of the sentence when asking questions in Spanish:
Mmm... ¿Quieres ir al cine?
Mmm... Do you want to go to the movies?
-Sí, ¡buena idea!
-Yes, good idea!Play Caption
Do you need help?
Captions 9-10, Español para principiantes - La horaPlay Caption
¿No conoces Manhattan?
You don't know Manhattan?
Caption 37, Yago - 2 El pumaPlay Caption
As you can see, it is very common to start Yes/No questions with a conjugated verb.
The following is the Spanish question structure you need to keep mind when your question is aimed at getting some sort of information:
¿ + (preposition) + question word + conjugated verb + (additional information) + ?
Please note that the terms in parenthesis are optional. Let's see a couple of examples:
¡Oh! ¿Dónde está el cajero automático?
Oh! Where's the ATM?
Caption 36, Natalia de Ecuador - Palabras de uso básicoPlay Caption
In the example above, we have the following structure:
¿ + question word (dónde) + conjugated verb (está) + additional information (el cajero automático) + ?
Let's listen to another clip:
¿Desde cuándo tienes este piso?
Since when have you had this apartment?
Caption 35, 75 minutos - Gangas para ricosPlay Caption
In this last example, the Spanish question structure is the following:
¿ + preposition (desde) + question word (cuándo) + conjugated verb (tienes) + additional information (este piso) + ?
Now that we have seen the structure of a question, let's take a look at some Spanish question words in sentences.
It's time to review the most important interrogative words in Spanish. If you are thinking about WH questions, you are right. Let's find out what the Spanish question words are for 'what', 'which', 'when', 'where', 'who', 'why' and 'how'.
For your reference, here's a list of the top question words in Spanish.
What / Which (Qué / Cuál)
Why (Por qué)
Now, let's see each one of these question words in action with a list of some of the most basic Spanish questions you can ask.
And now, let's dive into our list.
What / Which (Qué / Cuál)
Diremos, "¿Qué hora es?"
We'll say, "What time is it?"
Caption 49, Español para principiantes - La horaPlay Caption
O, ¿A qué te dedicas?
Or, What do you do? [with "tú"].
Caption 17, Karla e Isabel - Tú y UstedPlay Caption
Oye, y ¿en qué trabajas?
Hey, and what do you do [for a living]?
Caption 82, Ricardo - La compañera de casaPlay Caption
Por supuesto; ¿cuál es su dirección de correo?
Of course; what is your e-mail address?
Caption 69, Negocios - Empezar en un nuevo trabajoPlay Caption
¿Recuerdas cuál era la copa para servir vino?
Do you remember which cup was the one for serving wine?
Caption 36, Ana Carolina - El comedorPlay Caption
¿Y cuándo hizo el "check-in"?
And when did he check-in?
Caption 13, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 3Play Caption
¿Cuándo terminas de estudiar?
When do you finish studying?Play Caption
¿De dónde eres?
Where are you from?
Caption 36, Curso de español - ¿De dónde eres?Play Caption
Y ¿en dónde vives?
And where do you live?
Caption 8, Cleer - Entrevista a LilaPlay Caption
Let's see a couple of clips from Raquel to see the kind of questions you ask when you want to find out where something is located:
¿Me podrías decir dónde está el baño?
Could you tell me where the bathroom is?Play Caption
¿Sabes dónde hay alguna farmacia?
Do you know where there's a pharmacy?
Caption 24, Raquel - Expresiones para un festival de música.Play Caption
We use 'who' when we want to find out someone's identity. Let's see a couple of examples:
Mi jugador favorito juega en el Real Madrid.
My favorite player plays for Real Madrid.
Who is it?
Captions 19-20, El Aula Azul - Las ProfesionesPlay Caption
¿Usted quién es?
Who are you?
Roberto. Un amigo.
Roberto. A friend.
Captions 24-25, Yago - 9 RecuperaciónPlay Caption
Why (Por qué)
¿Por qué dices eso? -No...
Why are you saying that? -No...
Caption 14, Cortometraje - BetaPlay Caption
Para saludar, podemos decir: "Hola. ¿Cómo estás? ¿Todo bien?"
To greet (people), we can say: "Hello. How are you? (Is) everything good?"
Caption 7, Español en las calles - Varias expresionesPlay Caption
Keep in mind that the word 'cómo' is not always translated as the English word 'how'. In fact, one of the most basic Spanish questions you can ask is a good example of that:
Buenos días, ¿cómo te llamas?
Good morning, what's your name?
Caption 8, La rutina diaria - La mañanaPlay Caption
When we want to find out someone's age or the price of an object, we combine 'how' with other words such as 'old' or 'much'. When we want to get that kind of information, we use other interrogative words in Spanish. Let's take a look:
How much does it cost?
Captions 33-34, Natalia de Ecuador - Palabras de uso básicoPlay Caption
¿Cuántos años tienes?
How old are you?
Caption 6, Cleer - Entrevista a LilaPlay Caption
Ah, vale. ¿Cuántos hijos tienes?
Oh, OK. How many sons do you have?
Caption 39, Clase Aula Azul - El verbo parecerPlay Caption
¿Y cuántas botellas de agua hay aquí?
And how many bottles of water are there here?Play Caption
And that's it for now. We hope you use this review of the most important Spanish question words as the perfect excuse to start asking questions in Spanish. Are you ready? We encourage you to do that and don't forget to send us your questions and comments.
When it comes to bringing good vibes and positive energy, there's nothing better than a nice compliment. In fact, we use compliments when we want to express respect, approval, or admiration for someone. With that being said, let's learn some easy ways to express compliments in Spanish.
First things first. There are various terms you can use for the word compliment in Spanish. The following are your options:
Keep in mind, however, that the word piropo is mostly used to indicate a short sentence that is concerned with the beauty of a woman:
En cambio vos no cambiaste nada;
On the other hand you haven't changed a bit;
estás más hermosa que nunca.
you're more beautiful than ever.
Caption 56, Yago - 11 PrisiónPlay Caption
Very often, compliments are preceded by some form of congratulations. Let's see that in action:
Los felicito, muchachos; eso está muy bien.
I congratulate you, kids; that's great.
Caption 36, Tu Voz Estéreo - Feliz NavidadPlay Caption
Enhorabuena, Amaya... -Muchas gracias. -...por tu primera venta.
Congratulations, Amaya... -Thanks a lot. -...on your first sale.
Caption 77, Santuario para burros - Tienda solidariaPlay Caption
Do you know how to say 'good job' in Spanish? Let's see how to express one of the most common compliments:
Te felicito; buen trabajo, ¿eh?
I congratulate you; good job, huh?
Caption 49, Muñeca Brava - 47 EsperanzasPlay Caption
Debo admitir que hiciste un excelente trabajo, realmente.
I must admit that you did an excellent job, really.
Caption 4, Muñeca Brava - 33 El partidoPlay Caption
There are many ways to compliment a woman on her looks. Let's see some examples of compliments for women in Spanish:
Caption 30, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 3Play Caption
Pasa. -Qué bonita que estás, ¿eh?
Come in. -How pretty you look, huh?
Caption 1, Yago - 12 FianzaPlay Caption
Yo jamás dejaría plantada a una mujer tan guapa como esta.
I would never stand up a woman as beautiful as this one.
Caption 67, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capitulo 5Play Caption
The verb gustar (to like) is very useful when it comes to express compliments. Just like English, what you want to say is 'I like this of you':
Me gusta como sos. Me gusta tu pelo.
I like how you are. I like your hair.
Captions 80-81, Muñeca Brava - 7 El poemaPlay Caption
You can also use similar verbs to express compliments in Spanish:
Es que me encanta cómo hablas.
It's just that I love the way you speak.
Caption 49, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 2Play Caption
¡Hey! Adoro tu caminar
Hey! I adore your walking
Caption 34, Huecco - Dame VidaPlay Caption
There are lots of compliments you can use when you want to encourage someone. Teachers, for example, use these kinds of compliments often with their students:
Perfecto, chicos. Muy bien.
Perfect, guys. Very good.
Caption 57, Clase Aula Azul - El verbo parecerPlay Caption
A very common way of expressing compliments in Spanish consists of using the word qué (what) followed by a positive word (most of the time an adjective):
¡Qué buen observador eres!
What a good observer you are!
Caption 30, Guillermina y Candelario - El Mar enamoradoPlay Caption
¡Pero qué lindo dibujito!
But what a nice little drawing!
¡Mateo, qué bien está dibujado, che!
Mateo, how well it's drawn, wow!
Captions 41-42, Yago - 4 El secretoPlay Caption
Quiero que todo el mundo sea feliz y contento.
I want everyone to be happy and content.
¡Muy bien! Qué bonito, ¿mmm?
Very good! How nice, hmm?
Captions 34-35, Clase Aula Azul - Pedir deseosPlay Caption
Sometimes, we can express compliments or flatter someone by saying good things about something that is connected to that person:
Ay, me encanta tu camiseta azul. Gracias.
Oh, I love your blue shirt. Thank you.
Captions 3-4, Español para principiantes - Los coloresPlay Caption
Si, si lo criaste vos, tiene que ser un buen pibe.
If, if you raised him, he must be a good kid.
Caption 33, Yago - 6 MentirasPlay Caption
And that's it for today. Try practicing some of these compliments in Spanish and don't forget to send us your questions and comments.
¡Hasta la próxima!
Let's enhance our vocabulary today! As you know, nouns in Spanish are defined by number and gender. However, there are some nouns that can be both masculine and feminine. Moreover, depending on the gender they have, these nouns change their meanings completely. With that being said, let's take a look at some Spanish words that change meaning with gender.
Feminine: la capital (a capital city)
Está ubicada a ciento diez kilómetros de Quito, la capital del Ecuador.
It is located one hundred and ten kilometers from Quito, the capital of Ecuador.Play Caption
Masculine: el capital (capital: money)
No buscar la acumulación de capital
It's not seeking the accumulation of capital,
sino buscar la satisfacción de necesidades sociales.
but seeking the satisfaction of social necessities.
Captions 74-75, De consumidor a persona - Short FilmPlay Caption
Feminine: la cólera (anger, rage)
Masculine: el cólera (cholera - the illness)
Feminine: la coma (a comma - punctuation)
Masculine: el coma (a coma - medicine)
Feminine: la cometa (a kite)
Pero la cometa estaba muy alta para cogerla.
But the kite was too high to grab.Play Caption
Masculine: el cometa (a comet - astronomy)
Feminine: la corte (a court of law OR the royal court of a king)
Creo que voy a apelar esta decisión a la Corte Suprema.
I think I'm going to appeal this decision to the Supreme Court.
Caption 83, Los casos de Yabla - Problemas de convivenciaPlay Caption
...que le habían sido cedidos para recreo de la corte.
...that had been handed over to him for the court's recreation.
Caption 59, Marisa en Madrid - Parque de El RetiroPlay Caption
Masculine: el corte (a cut - injury OR the cut of hair or a suit)
Y ahora voy a hacer el corte aquí.
And now I am going to make the cut here.
Caption 42, Instrumentos musicales - OcarinasPlay Caption
Feminine: la cura (the cure)
Tu madre no tiene cura.
Your mom has no cure.
Caption 45, Muñeca Brava - 44 El encuentroPlay Caption
Masculine: el cura (a priest)
Aquí no habrá noche de bodas mientras no vayan con un cura.
Here, there will be no wedding night until you go to a priest.
Caption 23, El Ausente - Acto 4Play Caption
Feminine: la final (the sports final, the playoffs)
Jueguen como si fuera la final.
Play as if it were the finals.Play Caption
Masculine: el final (the end)
Al final le he pedido disculpas y todo.
In the end, I apologized to him and everything.
Caption 55, Cortometraje - FlechazosPlay Caption
Feminine: la frente (the forehead)
"María le tocó la frente a su hijo para ver si tenía fiebre".
"Maria touched her son's forehead to see if he had a fever."
Caption 17, Carlos explica - Vocabulario: El verbo “tocar”Play Caption
Masculine: el frente (the front - military)
Los soldados están en el frente de batalla.
The soldiers are on the battle front.
Feminine: la guía (a guide book OR a female guide OR a telephone book OR guidance)
Todo bajo la guía de un profesor de educación física.
All with the guidance of a P.E. teacher.
Caption 7, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 1Play Caption
¡Pippo, traé una guía!
Pippo, bring me a phone directory.
Caption 55, Yago - 5 La ciudadPlay Caption
Masculine: el guía (a male guide)
Mi nombre es Mauricio y soy un guía turístico.
My name is Mauricio and I'm a tour guide.
Caption 27, Pipo - Un paseo por la playa de AtacamesPlay Caption
Feminine: la orden (a command OR a restaurant order)
Normalmente, cuando estás haciendo una orden...
Usually, when you're placing an order...
Caption 28, Natalia de Ecuador - Ordenar en un restaurantePlay Caption
Masculine: el orden (order)
Listo, señor Rolleri; todo en orden.
Done, Mister Rolleri; everything's in order.
Caption 68, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 2Play Caption
That's if for today. Do you know more Spanish words that change meaning with gender? We challenge you to find more and don't forget to send us your questions and comments.
Let's talk about adverbs! In this lesson, we have a big match: afuera vs. fuera. Do you know the meaning of these two words? Let's explore how to use and pronounce these frequently used Spanish adverbs.
As an adverb, afuera refers to a place that is outside of where you are:
Todo lo malo me pasa dentro de esta casa, no afuera.
All the bad things happen to me inside this house, not outside.
Caption 20, Muñeca Brava - 18 - La ApuestaPlay Caption
Similarly, the adverb fuera is used to talk about the exterior part of something:
Puedes ir a tomar café a una cafetería fuera de la escuela.
You can go to drink coffee at a cafe outside of the school.
Caption 17, El Aula Azul - Las actividades de la escuelaPlay Caption
If you want to indicate that someone is going outside, toward the exterior, or even abroad (with verbs of movement), you can use either afuera or fuera. Both forms are correct and are used indistinctly in both Spain and Latin America. Let's see some sentences:
Vení, vamos afuera.
Come, let's go outside.
Caption 28, Yago - 9 RecuperaciónPlay Caption
Cuando los cuatro compañeros nos fuimos a estudiar fuera.
When we four friends went to study abroad.Play Caption
When you want to indicate that someone or something is outside, or when you want to make a reference to the outside world, you use fuera in both Spain and Latin America. However, it is also very common to use afuera throughout the Americas. Let's hear the pronunciation of these two words one more time:
¡Qué lindo que está afuera! ¿No? El clima está divino.
How nice it is outside! No? The weather is divine.
Caption 15, Muñeca Brava - 1 PilotoPlay Caption
Me doy una buena ducha aquí fuera.
I take a good shower here outside.
Caption 31, Amaya - "Mi camper van"Play Caption
Both afuera and fuera can be used as interjections. Generally speaking, you use these interjections when you ask someone to leave a place.
¡Suficiente, fuera de mi casa!
Enough, out of my house!
Caption 61, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 4Play Caption
There are several useful idiomatic expressions with the word fuera. Let's see some of them:
Este hombre vive fuera de la realidad, Señoría.
This man lives outside of reality, Your Honor.
Caption 36, Los casos de Yabla - Problemas de convivenciaPlay Caption
Su ropa está fuera de moda.
His clothes are out of fashion.Play Caption
No hay nada fuera de lo normal.
There isn't anything out of the ordinary.
Caption 38, Negocios - Empezar en un nuevo trabajoPlay Caption
That's it for today. We hope this review helps you to use correctly the adverbs fuera and afuera. As you could see throughout this lesson, more than talking about afuera vs fuera, we should really treat this subject as afuera = fuera! Keep that in mind and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions.
Let's talk about family! Do you know how to say words like "father" or "cousin" in Spanish? Today, we will learn how to say the names of the most important family members in Spanish. In particular, we will see how to write and pronounce those names. Let's take a look.
Familia is the Spanish word for family. It is important to say that this is a feminine collective noun. Collective nouns are words that we use for particular groups. However, these nouns are treated as singular words. Let's see how this works:
Mi familia es pequeña y cálida.
My family is small and warm.
Considerando que "familia" es un sustantivo colectivo femenino,
Considering that "familia" is a feminine collective noun,
conjugamos el verbo en tercera persona del singular
we conjugate the verb in third person singular
y utilizamos adjetivos femeninos, "pequeña" y "cálida",
and use feminine adjectives, "pequeña" [small] and "cálida" [warm],
para elaborar la concordancia de manera correcta.
to create agreement in the correct way.
Captions 16-20, Carlos explica - Sustantivos colectivosPlay Caption
The following are the names of the most important family member in Spanish.
Comes bastante verdura, tu madre que te quiere.
Eat enough vegetables, your mother who loves you.Play Caption
Very often, however, people refer to their mothers using the following terms:
Mamá, quería preguntarte algo.
Mom, I wanted to ask you something.
Caption 2, Yago - 10 Enfrentamientos - Part 7Play Caption
¿Haciendo la tarea con mami? -Sí.
Doing your homework with Mommy? -Yes.
Caption 24, Yago - 11 Prisión - Part 5Play Caption
"A mi padre siempre le toca trabajar mucho todos los viernes".
"My father always has to work a lot every Friday."
Caption 53, Carlos explica - Vocabulario: El verbo “tocar”Play Caption
However, just like for the word "mother", there are some other terms people use when talking with or about their fathers:
Fue cuando me di cuenta no tenía ni idea de lo que hacía mi papá.
It was then that I realized I had no idea what my dad did.
Caption 30, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 3 - Part 3Play Caption
Papi, cualquier hora es buena.
Daddy, any hour is good.
Caption 5, X6 1 - La bandaPlay Caption
Quiero presentarles a mi hijo; Kevin, él es Felipe.
I want to introduce you to my son; Kevin, this is Felipe.
Caption 16, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 3 - Part 6Play Caption
Y muy feliz de tener a mi lado a mi hija.
And very happy to have my daughter by my side.
Caption 38, Yolimar Gimón - sobre el concurso Mrs. VenezuelaPlay Caption
Después aquí tengo a mi hermano, José.
Then here I have my brother, Jose.
Caption 11, Curso de español - Vamos a hablar de la familiaPlay Caption
...pero que estaba alejando a mi hermana de nosotros.
...but it was taking my sister away from us.
Caption 21, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 4Play Caption
Grandpa, Grandpa!Play Caption
Abuela, podemos hablar dos minutos por favor.
Grandmother, can we talk for two minutes, please.
Caption 4, Muñeca Brava - 18 - La ApuestaPlay Caption
Mi nieto no existe.
My grandson does not exist.
Caption 53, Muñeca Brava - 33 El partidoPlay Caption
La nieta de María.
Caption 30, Zoraida en Coro - El pintor YepezPlay Caption
Y su tío Aldo cree que está muerto, su tío Lucio confía en que esté vivo.
And his Uncle Aldo believes that he's dead, his Uncle Lucio has faith that he's alive.
Caption 22, Yago - 8 Descubrimiento - Part 3Play Caption
Esa es mi tía Silvia.
That is my Aunt Silvia.
Caption 24, Español para principiantes - DemostrativosPlay Caption
¿Hace cuánto tiempo que dejó de ver a su sobrino?
How long ago did you stop seeing your nephew?
Caption 69, Yago - 8 Descubrimiento - Part 1Play Caption
Sobrina. Muy bien.
Niece. Very good.
Caption 43, Curso de español - Vamos a hablar de la familiaPlay Caption
Sí, me gusta mucho mi primo Pedro.
Yes, I like my cousin Pedro very much.
Caption 40, El Aula Azul - Mis PrimosPlay Caption
Esta mañana mi prima se ha roto la pierna jugando al fútbol.
This morning my cousin has broken her leg playing soccer.Play Caption
Finally, keep in mind that when using the plural forms of these nouns, you should use the male form when the group is made of both male and female members:
Two cousins (both male): Dos primos
Two cousins (both female): Dos primas
Two cousing (one male and one female): Dos primos
That's it for today. We invite you to take a piece of paper and design your family tree with the names of the family members in Spanish. And don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions.
Let's talk about the time! Are you ready to learn how to tell time in Spanish?
Well, first, for the purposes of this lesson, we invite you to review the following components:
- The verb ser (to be)
- The definite articles for feminine nouns
- The numbers from one to fifty-nine
In addition to these, we will examine some useful expressions and vocabulary that will help you to learn how to tell time in Spanish. Let's get started.
There are two common ways to ask for the time in Spanish. Let's take a look:
¿Cómo preguntamos la hora?
How do we ask what time it is?
Diremos, "¿Qué hora es?"
We'll say, "What time is it?"
Captions 47-49, Español para principiantes - La horaPlay Caption
¿Me podría decir qué horas son?
Could you tell me what time it is?Play Caption
As you can see, the difference between these two questions is that the first is singular while the second is plural. It is important to note that the singular form (¿Qué hora es?) is preferred, and we thus encourage you to choose it when asking for the time in Spanish.
Now that you know how to say "What time is it?" it is time (no pun intended!) to learn how to tell time in Spanish! The formula is quite simple:
To be + article + hour + additional information
Let's focus on each of these variables.
Just as we say "It's one o'clock" or "It is seven forty-three" in English, we must also use the verb ser (to be) when telling time in Spanish. Interestingly, although the third person singular form es would be the Spanish equivalent of "it's" or "it is," due to the fact that we are referring to the plural noun horas (hours), Spanish almost always utilizes the plural form of ser, or son. As you see below, the only exception to this rule is when talking about one o'clock, in which case the singular form es is indeed applied.
Son las doce.
It's twelve o'clock.
Es la una.
It's one o'clock.
Son las dos.
It's two o'clock.
Captions 16-18, Español para principiantes - La horaPlay Caption
Similarly, since horas is feminine and plural, the feminine plural definite article las must accompany it. Once again, one o'clock is the only exception with which we use the singular feminine definite article la. Looking once more at the previous example, let's focus on these definite articles:
Son las doce.
It's twelve o'clock.
Es la una.
It's one o'clock.
Son las dos.
It's two o'clock.
Captions 16-18, Español para principiantes - La horaPlay Caption
We've arrived at the point in our Spanish time-telling formula where "it's time" to insert a number! In case you haven't learned the numbers in Spanish or need some brushing up on them, we would like to refer you to this very useful, past Yabla lesson (noting again that for telling time in Spanish, it would only be necessary to know the numbers up through fifty-nine).
Applying the principles we've just spoken about, let's take a look at some very straightforward examples of telling time in Spanish, prior to getting to that "additional information" we spoke about:
Son las diez.
It's ten o'clock.
Es la una.
It's one o'clock.
Son las veinte.
It's eight p.m.
Wait... what?! Doesn't Son las veinte mean "It's twenty o'clock?" Some Spanish-speaking countries employ military time in which the numbers from one to twelve are utilized for the hours from one a.m. to twelve p.m., and the numbers thirteen through twenty-four are used to refer to the hours from one p.m. to twelve a.m. So, you might hear, “Son las trece” (literally "It’s thirteen") in lieu of “Es la una” to say that it’s one p.m., whereas “Son las veinte” (It’s twenty) would mean, “It’s eight p.m.”
When not speaking in military time, expressions like de la mañana (in the morning), de la tarde (in the afternoon/evening), or de la noche (at night) are sometimes included to help one distinguish the exact time. Alternatively, “a.m.” and “p.m.” can be used just like in English. Let's look at some examples:
Son las diez de la manana.
It's ten in the morning.
Son las diez de la noche.
It's ten at night.
Son las cinco a.m.
It's five a.m.
Son las cinco p.m.
It's five p.m.
Up until now, all of the times we have spoken about have been very simple and straightforward, including only the hours without any minutes. So, how do we talk about more complex times in Spanish?
One of the simplest ways to express the minutes after an hour in Spanish is by adding the word y (and). Then, just like in English, we would insert the particular number of minutes, as follows:
Son las once y cinco.
It's five after eleven (or It's eleven o-five).
Son las cinco y cincuenta y siete.
It's five fifty-seven.
Sometimes, the y before the minutes is omitted. So, you might hear simply Son las cinco cincuenta y siete. In yet another alternative construction, con (with) might take the place of y to get: Son las siete con cincuenta y siete.
In addition to saying the specific minutes, there are a few, extremely useful Spanish expressions that one should memorize in order to effectively talk about time in Spanish, which are as follows: y cuarto ("quarter past/after" or "fifteen"), y media ("half past" or "thirty"), menos cuarto ("quarter to/till" or "forty-five") and para ("to/till"). Let's take a look at some examples:
¿Sabe qué hora es?
Do you know what time is it?
Ehm... Son las nueve menos cuarto.
Um... It's quarter to nine.
Captions 9-10, Español para principiantes - Saludos y encuentrosPlay Caption
Although the literal translation for Son las nueve menos cuarto would be "It's nine minus fifteen," this would typically be expressed in English with either "It's quarter to nine" or "It's eight forty-five." That said, just as there are different ways of describing the same time in English, the same holds true in Spanish. Alternatives include: Son las ocho y cuarenta y cinco (literally "it's eight forty-five") and falta un cuarto para las nueve (another manner of saying "it's quarter to nine"). Let's look at these additional possibilities in action in the following Yabla clip:
Nueve cuarenta y cinco.
Otra manera de decir esta hora sería:
Another way to say this time would be:
Cuarto para las diez.
Quarter to ten.
Captions 32-34, Aprendiendo con Karen - El tiempoPlay Caption
Let's take a look at a couple of additional examples of the aforementioned phrases:
Y practico Tae Bo todas las tardes, de siete y media a ocho y media.
And I do Tae Bo every afternoon from seven thirty to eight thirty.
Caption 21, Patricia Marti - Diversión y EjercicioPlay Caption
Otra manera de decir esta hora sería:
Another way of saying this time would be:
Seis y cuarto.
Quarter after six.
Captions 26-28, Aprendiendo con Karen - El tiempoPlay Caption
You will notice that in the second example, seis quince is another, more literal way to say "quarter after six," and the literal equivalent of the English "six fifteen." And, as we spoke about earlier, although one could say seis y quince, the y has been omitted.
As you can see, there are numerous ways of talking about time in Spanish, some of which might be preferred in specific regions or with specific individuals. We invite you to review these concepts and terminology in order to find your favorite way of telling time in Spanish.
We hope you've enjoyed this lesson, see you next "time"! And please don't forget to leave us your comments and suggestions.
Generally speaking, one-syllable words in Spanish don't need a graphic accent (tilde) even if they are tonic (words that are stressed when pronounced). Some examples of tonic one-syllable words include the following nouns:
Besides nouns, there are several one-syllable words that come from the conjugations of some verbs. Just as the nouns we mentioned before, these words don't need a graphic accent either. Let's see some examples:
Él los vio a los ladrones.
He saw the thieves.
¿Usted vio a los ladrones?
Did you see the thieves?
Captions 16-17, Yago - 6 MentirasPlay Caption
No sabemos si fue el lunes o si fue el martes.
We don't know if it was on Monday or it was on Tuesday.
Caption 5, El Aula Azul - Dos historiasPlay Caption
With that being said, there are some important exceptions of one-syllable words in Spanish that do need a graphic accent. This kind of accent is called in Spanish tilde diacrítica and we use it to avoid confusion between one-syllable words that have the same spelling but different meanings. Let's take a look.
Los niños y los adultos se ríen mucho con él.
Kids and adults laugh a lot with him.
Caption 54, El Aula Azul - Las ProfesionesPlay Caption
Tenemos los hombros y después tenemos el brazo.
We have the shoulders and then we have the arm.
Captions 8-9, Marta de Madrid - El cuerpo - El troncoPlay Caption
Except when it acts as a conjunction of contrast (just like the word pero [but]), the one-syllable word más always has a graphic accent.
Empecé más o menos a los diecisiete años a tocar instrumentos
I started to play instruments at about seventeen years old
y a cantar a un nivel más avanzado.
and to sing at a more advanced level.
Captions 18-19, Cleer - Entrevista con JackyPlay Caption
When it works as a personal pronoun, you need to put the graphic accent.
Pueden confiar en mí.
You can trust me.
Caption 11, Guillermina y Candelario - Mi Primer TesoroPlay Caption
However, when it works as a possessive adjective, it doesn't need a graphic accent.
En mi barrio hay una farmacia.
In my neighborhood there is a pharmacy.
Caption 4, El Aula Azul - Mi BarrioPlay Caption
Form of the verbs ser (to be) and saber (to know)
Que sí, mamá, que ya sé que siempre se olvida de mi cumpleaños.
Yes, Mom, I know that he always forgets my birthday.
Caption 1, Cortometraje - BetaPlay Caption
Personal pronoun and reflexive
El martes se me perdieron las llaves de casa.
On Tuesday, my house keys got lost.Play Caption
Ella no quería acostarse con Ivo Di Carlo.
She didn't want to sleep with Ivo Di Carlo.
Caption 61, Muñeca Brava - 48 - SolucionesPlay Caption
Reflexive pronoun and adverb of affirmation
Sí, vine porque Aldo me había hecho una propuesta.
Yes, I came because Aldo had made a suggestion.
Caption 3, Yago - 14 La peruanaPlay Caption
Si me dejan en la calle me arreglo
If they leave me on the street I manage
Caption 2, Jorge Celedón, Vicentico - Si Me DejanPlay Caption
¿Quién no se despierta con una taza de café o de un buen té?
Who doesn't wake up with a cup of coffee or good tea?
Caption 39, Aprendiendo con Karen - Utensilios de cocinaPlay Caption
Personal pronoun and reflexive
La que yo guardo donde te escribí, que te sueño y que te quiero tanto
The one I keep where I wrote to you, that I dream of you and that I love you so much
Caption 9, Carlos Vives, Shakira - La BicicletaPlay Caption
Rachel, ¿qué quieres tú?
Rachel, what do you want?
Caption 2, Clase Aula Azul - Pedir deseosPlay Caption
Para tu salud, tan importante para tu estilo de vida...
For your health, as important for your lifestyle...
Caption 52, Natalia de Ecuador - Alimentos para el desayunoPlay Caption
That's it for today. We encourage you to learn all these one-syllable words as they are used quite often in Spanish. If you master them, you will be able to avoid common writing mistakes. If you have any comments or questions, please don't hesitate to contact us.